Saturday, April 30, 2011

ctet 2011 sample paper (Child Development and Pedagogy


Teacher Eligibility Test (TET) would be conducted in June 2011 and there would be around 30 questions on

Child Development and Pedagogy and below are some questions on the same section.

1. Absenteeism can be tackled by :

(1) teaching (2) punishing the students (3) giving the sweets (4) contacting the parents

2. Discipline means: (1) strict-behaviour (2) severe punishment (3) obedience (4) going by the rules

3. If any girl child does not corne to school regularly you will

(1) no bother (2) struck off her name (3) complain to the Principal (4) meet the parents and en-

courage them .

4. In co-education you want't to :

(1) make separate rows of boys and girls (2) you give preference to boys over girls

(3) you. give preference to none (4) you deal according to need

5. One of the basic priniclples of socializing Individuals is :

(1) religion (2) caste (3) educational (4) imitation

Directions (6-10) :

Which of the' skills do you consider most essential for a teacher?

6. (1) Oration skills

(2) Listening skills (3) Managerial skills, (4) Teaching skills

7. (1) encourage children to search for knowledge

(2) have all the information for the children

(3) ability to make children memorize materials

(4) enable children to do well in tests

8. (1) identify gifted children (2) have an understanding of all children abilities (3) identify children with learn­ing disabilities (4) none of the above

9. (1) _ ability to help children un­derstand texts thoroughly (2) ability to help children do all the exercises

(3) ability to raise possible ac­tions from the texts

(4) ability to help children from their own opinions on the text

10. (1) to communicate well

{2) to use difficult language

(3) to impress students

(4) to read out the textbook

11. Success in developing values is mainly dependent upon:

(1) government (2) society  (3) family (4) teacher

12. Good reading aims at develop­ing:

(l) understanding (2) pronunciation (3) sensitivity (4) increasing factual knowledge

13. The primary duty of a teacher is to be responsible to his/her:

(1) family (2) students  (3) society (4) nation

14. Which of the following is not related to educational achieve­ment?

(1) Heredity (2) Experiences (3) Practice (4) Self learning

15. One of,the students of a class hardly talks in the class. How would you encourage him to express himself?

(1) By orgariising discussions (2) By encouraging children to take part in classroom activities

(3) By organizing educational games/ programmes in which - children feel like speaking-

(4) By giving good marks to those who express them­'selves well

Answers: 1.4, 2. 4, 3. 4, 4. 4, 5. 3, 5. 4, 7. 1, 8. 2, 9. 4, 10. 1, 11. 3, 12. 1, 13. 2, 14. 1, 15. 3

CTET : Aim of School Based CCE


Aim of School Based CCE
􀂄 Elimination of chance element and subjectivity (as
far as possible), de-emphasis on memorization,
encouraging comprehensive evaluationincorporating both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects of learners
􀂄 Continuous evaluation spread over the total span of the instructional
time as an integral built-in aspect of the total teaching-learning
􀂄 Functional and meaningful declaration of results for effective use by
teachers, students, parents and the society
􀂄 Wider uses of test results for purposes not merely of the assessment
of levels of pupils’ achievements and proficiencies, but mainly for
their improvement, through diagnosis and remedial/enrichment
􀂄 Improvement in the mechanics of conducting examinations for
realizing a number of other allied purposes
􀂄 Introduction of concomitant changes in instructional materials and
􀂄 Introduction of the semester system.
􀂄 The use of grades in place of marks, in determining and declaring
the level of pupil performance and proficiency

ctet : A complete picture of the child’s learning, assessment


In view of getting a complete picture of the child’s learning,
assessment should focus on the learner’s ability to –
􀂄 Learn and acquire desired skills related to different subject areas
􀂄 Acquire a level of achievement in different subject areas in the
requisite measure
􀂄 Develop child’s individual skills, interests, attitudes and motivation
􀂄 Understand and lead a healthy and productive life
􀂄 Monitor the changes taking place in child’s learning, behaviour
and progress over a period of time
􀂄 Respond to different situations and opportunities both in and out
of school
􀂄 Apply what is learnt in a variety of environment, circumstances
and situations
􀂄 Work independently, collaboratively and harmoniously
􀂄 Analyze and evaluate
􀂄 Be aware of social and environmental issues
􀂄 Participate in social and environmental projects
􀂄 Retain what is learned over a period of time

CTET : Historical view of various Recommendations and Reports


Historical view of various Recommendations and Reports
Examinations are an indispensable part of the educational process as
some form of assessment is necessary to determine the effectiveness of
teaching learning process and their internalization by learners. Various
Commissions and Committees have felt the need for examination reforms.
The Hunter Commission (1882), Calcutta University Commission or Sadler
Commission (1917-1919), Hartog Committee Report (1929), the Report
of Central Advisory Board or Sargeant Plan (1944), Secondary Education
Commission or Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) have all made
recommendations regarding reducing emphasis on external examination
and encouraging internal assessment through Continuous and
Comprehensive Evaluation.
The need for Continuous and Comprehensive School Based Evaluation
has been reiterated over the last few decades. The Kothari Commission
report (1966) observed, ‘On the completion of the course, at the end of
the lower or higher secondary stage, the student should receive a certificate
from the school alongwith the record of his internal assessment as contained
in his cumulative record. This certificate may be attached to that given by
the Board in connection with the external examination…’ (9.81). It further
adds, ‘This internal assessment or evaluation conducted by the schools is
of greater significance and should be given increasing importance. It should
be comprehensive, evaluating all those aspects of students’ growth that
are measured by the external examination and also those personality traits,
interests and attitudes which cannot be assessed by it.’ (9.84).

ctet 2011 sample paper (Characteristics of learning )

Characteristics of learning 
􀂄 All children are naturally motivated to learn and are capable of learning 􀂄 Understanding and developing the capacity for abstract thinking, reflection and work are the most important aspects of learning 􀂄 Children learn in a variety of ways - through experience, making and doing things, experimentation, reading, discussion, asking, listening, thinking , reflecting, and expressing oneself in speech or writing both individually and with others. They require opportunities of all these kinds in the course of their development 􀂄 Teaching something before the child is cognitively ready takes away real learning. Children may ‘remember’ many facts but they may not understand them or be able to relate them to the world around them 􀂄 Learning takes place both within the school and outside school. Learning is enriched if these two arenas interact with each other. Art and work provide opportunities for holistic learning that is rich in tacit and aesthetic components. Such experiences are essential to be learnt through direct experience and integrated with life 􀂄 Learning must be paced so that it allows learners to engage with concepts and deepen the understanding rather than remembering only to forget after examinations. At the same time learning must provide variety and challenge, and be interesting and engaging Boredom is a sign that the task may have become mechanically repetitive for the child and of little cognitive value 􀂄 Learning can take place with or without mediation. In the case of the latter, the social context and interactions, especially with those who are capable, provide avenues for learners to work at cognitive levels above their own

ctet 2011 sample paper


Aim of Education
Education aims at making children capable of becoming responsible, productive and useful
members of a society. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are built through learning experiences and
opportunities created for learners in school. It is in the classroom that learners can analyse and
evaluate their experiences, learn to doubt, to question, to investigate and to think independently.
The aim of education simultaneously reflects the current needs and aspirations of a society as well
as its lasting values and human ideals. At any given time and place it can be called the contemporary
and contextual articulations of broad and lasting human aspirations and values.An understanding of learners, educational aims, the nature of knowledge and the nature of the school as a social organization can help us arrive at principles to guide classroom practices.
                   Conceptual development is thus a continuous process of deepening and enriching
connections and acquiring new layers of meaning. Simultaneously theories that children have about the natural and social world develop, including about themselves in relation to others, which provide them with explanations for why things are the way they are and the relationship between cause and effect. Attitudes, emotions and values are thus an integral part of cognitive development, and are linked to the development of language, mental representations, concepts and reasoning. As children’s metacognitive capabilities develop, they become more aware of their own beliefs and are capable of regulating their own learning.

Friday, April 29, 2011

Temperature, Heat, and the Particle Theory


Temperature, Heat, and the Particle Theory        
1.         What is a theory and can they be changed?

A theory is an explanation based on all the available information.  A theory can be changed when new evidence is discovered.

The Particle Theory

2.         According to the Particle Theory, what four characteristics are common to all matter?

According to the Particle Theory:

1.  All matter is made up of tiny particle too small to see.
2.  These tiny particles are always moving
3.  The tiny particles have energy
4.  The more energy the particles have the faster they move

3.         Use the Particle Theory of Matter to explain why pollen grains move around when placed in a glass of water.

Pollen grains move around in a glass of water because they are being pushed around by
the invisible particles in water.

Heat and Temperature

4.         Using the particle theory, explain Heat and Temperature.

The invisible particles in matter move because they have energy.  This energy is called heat. When these particles get more energy they move faster.  This creates more heat.

Temperature is a measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance.

Expansion and Contraction

5.         Use the particle theory to explain the Expansion and Contraction of matter

Expansion:      When a substance is heated, its invisible particle get more energy so they move faster and they move further apart.  This results in an increase in volume (size) for the substance.

Contraction:    When a substance is cooled, its invisible particles lose energy.  They slow down and move closer together.  This results in a decrease in volume (size) for the substance.

States of Matter

6.         What are the 3 possible states of all Matter?

The 3 states of matter are Solid, Liquid, and Gas

8.         Using Figure 4, Identify the properties (characteristics) of Solids, Liquids, and Gases.

Properties of Solids                                        
1.  a set volume
2.  a rigid shape
3.  they cannot flow like a gas or liquid
4.  the particles move but only vibrate

Properties of Liquids
1.  a set volume
2.  they take the shape of the container they are in
3.  a liquid can flow
4.  its particle are free to move around

Properties of Gases
1.  it will fill any container and take the shape of the container
2.  a gas will flow
3.  its particles are free to move around
4.  its particle are much further apart than solids or liquids
 Understand and Apply

9.   What is Brownian motion?  What important evidence did it provide to scientists?

The movement of pollen grain in a glass of water is referred to as Brownian Motion.  This motion is cause by the water particles.

This movement helped scientist prove that their Particle Theory – that all matter is made of tiny particle that are always moving.

10.       In your own words describe the difference between HEAT and TEMPERATURE.

Heat is another name a particle energy.
Temperature is a measurement of the average energy of moving particles

11.       Use the Particle Theory to explain how a clinical thermometer works.

In a clinical thermometer, the tiny particles of ethyl alcohol inside the bulb of the thermometer are heated by a person’s body temperature. This increase in energy causes the particle of ethyl alcohol to move faster and further apart.  As a result, the ethyl alcohol in the bulb of the thermometer begins to expand.  As the alcohol expands it moves up the bore of the thermometer.  The alcohol stops moving up the bore when it reaches a constant temperature.

12.       How can you use a bottle of perfume in a room to show that the molecules in a gas are in constant motion?

When a bottle of perfume is opened its smell is transferred through the air by the particles that make up the air.

How Does Temperature Differ From Heat


We have all noticed that when you heat something up, its temperature rises. Often we think that heat and temperature are the same thing. However, this is not the case. Heat and temperature are related to each other, but are different concepts.

Heat is the total energy of molecular motion in a substance while temperature is a measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance. Heat energy depends on the speed of the particles, the number of particles (the size or mass), and the type of particles in an object. Temperature does not depend on the size or type of object. For example, the temperature of a small cup of water might be the same as the temperature of a large tub of water, but the tub of water has more heat because it has more water and thus more total thermal energy

It is heat that will increase or decrease the temperature. If we add heat, the temperature will become higher. If we remove heat the temperature will become lower. Higher temperatures mean that the molecules are moving, vibrating and rotating with more energy.

If we take two objects which have the same temperature and bring them into contact, there will be no overall transfer of energy between them because the average energies of the particles in each object are the same. But if the temperature of one object is higher than that of the other object, there will be a transfer of energy from the hotter to the colder object until both objects reach the same temperature.

Temperature is not energy, but a measure of it. Heat is energy.

Current Electricity


Current Electricity

The term ‘current’ in general stands for the continuous flow of any material particles, e.g. water current means continuous flow of water particles through a pipe or a channel. Electric current in general means a continuous flow of electrons, ions or any electrically charged particles through a medium. In our everyday life, we are familiar with the electric current flowing through metallic conductors where flow of electrons only takes place. Positive charges can flow only through gases and nonmetallic solids and liquids.

Units of electrical quantities

I. Charge: The unit of charge in the S.I. system is coulomb.
2. Current strength: Current strength is often simply called current, its symbol is ‘I’ and the SI unit of it is ampere.

Idea of resistance-its influence on regulating current

The term "resist" means to oppose, so the property of opposing or resisting flow of electric charges in a conductor means resistance. The body resisting flow of charge is a resistor.
Resistance is the natural property of every material body by virtue of which the body opposes flow of electric charges through it.
The influence of resistance on a conductor is thus greater the resistance, less is the current through it and vice versa.
Unit of resistance is Ohm.

Ohm's law

The current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference between its ends when temperature and other physical conditions of the conductor remain unaltered.
Ohm's law is not valid for current flowing through gases under low pressure, electrolytes and semiconductors.

Heating effect of current

A potential difference applied across a conductor creates electrons drift from a point of lower potential to another point of higher potential. The electrons collide with the constituent particles of the conductor creating larger rate of vibration of the particles. So, according to the kinetic-theory an increase of heat energy occurs in the conductor causing rise of temperature of the conductor. This is heating effect of electric current. The amount of heat generated in a body depends upon current strength, resistance of the body and the time of flow of current. These factors are formulated in Joule's laws of heating effect of current.

Magnetic effect of current

A current-carrying conductor always generates a magnetic field around it. Oersted performed an experiment to show this, where a conductor was held above and parallel to a freely rotating pivoted magnetic needle. It was found that the magnetic needle deflected due to current flow in the conductor. The deflection increased with increase of current and it reversed when current was reversed. Thus, the current-carrying conductor associates a magnetic field around it due to which the magnetic needle deflects.
Ampere's Swimming rule gives the direction of magnetic field.
The rule is: If a man be imagined swimming along a conductor carrying current and in the direction of current with his face in normal position with respect to his body, turned towards the needle, then the North Pole will deflect towards his left Itcuui.
If the conductor carrying electric current is perpendicular to the needle, no deflection of the needle occurs.

Fleming's left hand rule

We stretch the thumb, forefinger and the middle finger of our left hand so that the three fingers are perpendicular to each other and if the forefinger is directed along the magnetic field (N-pole to S-pole), the middle finger along the direction of current, then the thumb gives the direction of deflection of the conductor.

Work, Power, Energy & Simple Machines


Work, Power, Energy & Simple Machines

Definition of work

Work is said to be done if due to application of an external force on a body there is actual displacement of the body, except when the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of force.
Work = Force x displacement of the point of application (body on which force is applied) in the direction of force.
If W = work done, F = applied force, d = displacement of the point of application in the direction of force, then from the definition of work, W = F x d.

Units of work

In C.G.S. the unit of work is Erg. In M.K.S. it is Joule.
1 Joule = 107 Erg.

Work done by a force

If the point of application moves in the direction of applied force, work is done by the force.

Work done against a force

If a body has its displacement in the opposite direction of the applied force, work is done against the force.


Rate of work done by an agent is known as its power. If w work is done by a body or a system in time t, then the power P of the body or the system is given by,
P = W/t.

Units of power

C.G.S. unit is Erg / second. In S.I. it is Watt. (Joule / second).

Mechanical energy

The energy that a body or a system acquires by virtue of its motion, position or configuration is known as mechanical energy.
Mechanical energy is of two types - (a) Potential energy and (b) Kinetic energy.
(a) Potential energy: Potential energy of a body is measured by the amount of work done to change its position or configuration.
Potential energy of a body of mass 'm' raised through 'h' above the Earth's surface is mgh.
(b) Kinetic Energy: Kinetic energy of a body generates as a result of motion of the body. It is usually defined as the work done by the body possessing the energy when it is stopped with an opposing force.
It can be proved that a body of mass ‘m’ moving with velocity ‘v’ has the kinetic energy 1/2 mv2.


A machine can be defined as a device with which an external force applied at a point of it in a certain direction is made to react at some other point on it. The reaction force overcomes another force or resistance.
The main advantages of a machine are (i) it enables us to apply a force at a convenient point in an easier manner, (ii) It helps us to overcome large resistance or to raise a heavy weight, (iii) with the help of a machine, a slow motion created at one point may be converted to a rapid motion at another point. Examples: paddle of a bicycle, sewing machine.

Mechanical Advantage

The advantage obtained from a machine in doing some work is called mechanical advantage. It is given by the ratio of the resistance force (W) overcome, to the effort (P) or the force applied to the machine to produce equilibrium.
Mechanical Advantage (M.A) = load / effort; W / P.
Mechanical Advantage has no unit, since it is expressed by the ratio of two forces, so, it is a pure number.


It is the ratio of the work done by a machine to the work done on the machine. The work done by a machine is called the output energy and that done on the machine is known as the input energy. A machine of efficiency 1 is called an Ideal machine.

Newton's Laws of Motion


Newton's Laws of Motion

(a) First Law: Everybody continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line except in so far as it be compelled by any external impressed force to change that state.
(b) Second law: The rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts.
(c) Third law: To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Inertia of Rest and Inertia of Motion

Inertia of a body is its reluctance to change the state of rest or of uniform motion. It is also the degree of resistance a material body can offer to change of motion or rest condition. Inertia is of two types :
(i) inertia of rest, (ii) inertia of motion.

Inertia of rest

Inertia of rest is the inherent property of a material body by virtue of which it continues in its state of rest until and unless no external unbalanced force compels it to move.

Inertia of motion

The tendency of a moving body to maintain its uniform motion in a straight line in absence of an effective external force is called inertia of motion.

Concept of Force

Newton's First Law clearly states that nothing moves unless it is moved. That is, a body at rest does not take any initiative to move, an external force of required magnitude is necessary for this purpose.
Similarly, a moving body may also be compelled to change its motion under this type of action. The change of motion may be either in the form of change in direction of velocity or change of magnitude of velocity or for both the reasons.
Force is an external agent that actually changes or tends to change the state of rest or uniform motion of a body.

Conceptually correct definition of force

Force is an agent which acting on a body actually changes the state of rest or uniform motion of the body.
Force is a vector quantity; it has magnitude as well as direction.

Units of force

The C.G.S. unit is Dyne = g-cm/s2; the M.K.S. unit is Newton (symbol N) = kg-m/s2


This physical quantity is dependent both on the mass and the velocity of a moving body. So, momentum is defined as the product of mass and velocity of the body concerned, i.e., Momentum = mass x velocity. It is a vector quantity; its direction is the direction of motion of the related body.

Units of momentum

Momentum = mass x velocity,
The C.G.S. unit is g-cm/s and the M.K.S. unit is kg-m/s

Action and Reaction forces

When one body exerts a force on the other, the force is called the action, the second body also offers at the same time an equal force on the first body in. the opposite direction and this force is called reaction. Since, every force of action is associated with an opposite force of reaction, no force can exist singly in nature, and that is, in nature forces always appear in pairs.
Action and reaction do not act at the same point. For example, when a cricket ball is hit with a bat, the cricket ball is the point of application of the action force the bat applied. The cricket ball also exerts equal reaction force on the bat. So, the bat is the point of application of the reaction force.

Rest and motion


Rest and motion

An idea about frame of reference is necessary before discussion on rest and motion.

Frame of reference

While we observe a body that does not change its position with flow of time, we almost unknowingly refer to a second body which is nearby the first one. The second body should be a fixed one - it may be a domestic building or a tree, a lamppost or a prominent spot oh a road or a fixed star in the sky. This second body is called a reference body or a frame of reference.


Frame of reference is any nearby or a distant fixed object from which the distance and position of a body is observed as time elapses.
Definitions of rest and motion


A body is said to be at rest if it does not change its position with time from a fixed neighboring object.


A body is in motion, if its position from a fixed neighboring object changes with time.

Rest and motion are relative

A body seems to be at rest with respect to one neighboring fixed object but the same body may appear to be in motion with respect to some other fixed neighboring object So, rest and motion are relative terms.


When an object changes its position as time passes on, the distance measured in the direction from its initial to final position along a straight line is known as its displacement. Displacement is a vector quantity; it is directed from the initial position of a body to its final position. Unit in C.G.S system is cm and in M.K.S. system is m.


Speed of a body is the distance covered by it in unit time in any direction.
Unit of speed in CGS is cm/s. Unit of speed in MKS is m/s. Speed has no definite direction, so it is a scalar quantity.


Velocity of a body is the distance covered by it in unit time in a specified direction. Thus velocity of a body is its speed in a specified direction. Hence, velocity is a vector quantity. The unit of velocity in C.G.S. unit is cm/s and in M.K.S m/s.


Increase or decrease of velocity per unit time is the acceleration of a body.
It is also defined as the rate of change of velocity with time. It’s a vector quantity. Unit of acceleration is C.G.S system is cm/s2 and in M.K.S system m/s2.

Matter and Energy


Matter and Energy


Natural objects visible to us are made of different types of matter-solid, liquid or gas. The quantity of such matter that an object possesses is its mass. It is a physical quantity having magnitude only and no direction, so mass is a scalar quantity.


Every material particle on or near the earth is attracted towards the earth’s centre, called gravity. The weight of a body is the sum of all such pulls on all the particles the body is composed of. That is why a body composed of a larger number of particles i.e. a body of larger mass has greater weight than a body of smaller mass consisting of less number of particles.
Force is the product of mass and acceleration, also, weight of a body is a force, so, weight of a body = mass of the body x acceleration due to gravity.
Or, W = mg, where ‘W’ is the weight and ‘m’ is the mass of the body and ‘g’ is the acceleration due to gravity.
Therefore, weight is a vector quantity because it has magnitude and direction as well.

Mass is more fundamental than weight

Mass of a body is not affected due to motion or its position in different places on the earth and on different planets. It also remains unchanged in different conditions of heat, light, electric and magnetic fields. In a word, it is an intrinsic property of all material bodies. On the other hand weight of a body given by the equation W = mg as shown earlier changes with the variation of ‘g’. The value of ‘g’ changes (i) at the poles, equator or other places on the earth; (ii) at different altitudes; (iii) at different planets; (iv)due to earth diurnal motion. Thus a body’s weight is variable but not the mass.

Conservation of mass

In ordinary chemical or physical change, total mass of the substances before the change is equal to the total mass of the products after the change. Lavoisier first enunciated the law of conservation mass. Much before Lavoisier, ancient Indian philosophers enunciated the same as; ‘anything that exists is imperishable ’.


Energy of a body or system is a measure of its ability to do work. In this universe, energy exists in different forms – mechanical energy, light energy, electrical energy, sound energy, atomic energy, chemical energy etc.


‘Physics’- is the science which treats the general properties of the natural bodies or it can be described as the science of the material system. From the very advent of human brain on earth, physics is their true companion, an eternal associate. Now this subject, ‘physics’ became our most valuable guide to enhance our inner knowledge as well as to increase our outer comfort.

Thursday, April 28, 2011

Nationalism In India-3

Nationalism In India
Q. 15 .  Examine the Satyagraha movement organized by Gandhiji between 1916-18.OrWith what major aims were the peasants movement organized in 1920?

Ans.1. Between 1916, he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
2. In 1917, he took up the cause of the peasants of Kheda district of Ahmedabad to fight for reduction of revenue through Satyagraha Movement.
3. In 1918, Gandhiji organized Satyagraha Movement against cotton mill owners.
4. These movements were the first mass movements in Indian National Movement. These inculcated self confidence and a spirit to fight against injustice among people.

Q .16 .  Why was the Khilafat Movement supported by Gandhiji in 1919? What was his main aim?

Ans. In 1919, Gandhiji supported the Khilafat Movement to protest against the breakup of Ottoman (Turkish) empire by the British and humiliation caused to Turkish Caliph who was also the head of the Muslims of the whole world. Gandhiji also wanted to unite the Hindus and Muslims to protest against the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. In this movement, Gandhiji extended the support of Congress towards the Muslims. He saw the opportunity of uniting the Hindus and Muslims for the cause of India’s freedom

Q.17 .  State any four factors responsible for the growth of nationalism in India.

Ans. 1. Result of colonial exploitation.

2. Understanding of the true nature of the British rule.
3. Racial discrimination.
4. Role of Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders.
5. Impact of nationalist literature, songs, poems, folklore.

Q. 18 . Describe the main features of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Ans.1. First successful mass movement.
2. People from all sections participated – role of students; people, young and old, joined.
3. Role of women – for the first time women in large numbers left the comfort of their homes and joined the movement.
4. For the first time the movement was launched with the goal of Purna Swaraj or complete independence.
5. The people could successfully defy British laws.

Q. 19 . When and why was the Poona Pact signed?

Ans. Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar was nominated as a delegate of the oppressed classes for the Second Round Table Conference. In that Round Table Conference, he clashed with Mahatma Gandji by demanding separate electorates for the dalits. When the British government accepted Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. The issue was eventually resolved through the Poona Pact of September 1932. It gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

Q. 20. What is known as Gandhi-Irwin Pact?

Ans. During the course of Civil Disobedience Movement 1,00,000 people were arrested.

1. In such a situation the Viceroy Lord Irwin signed an agreement with Gandhiji on 5th March 1931 because he wanted the Congress to attend the Round Table conference in London. This agreement is referred to as a Gandhi-Irwin Pact.

2. Gandhi promised to call off Civil Disobedience Movement and consented to participate in the 2nd Round Table Conference in London. The Viceroy agreed to release the political prisoners who were not charged with violence.

3. In December 1931, Gandhiji attended the conference but returned disappointed as the negotiations in London conference failed.

Q. 21.  Why did the Muslims fail to respond to the call of a united struggle during Civil Disobedience Movement?

Ans.  Some of the Muslim political organizations in India were lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. After the Khilafat and Non-cooperation Movement, a large section of the Muslims felt alienated from the Congress During this period the relations between Hindus and Muslims worsened, each community organized religious processions with militant fervor, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes in various cities. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.
Q . 22.  Examine the aims and methods of Non-Cooperation. How did the movement make a departure from earlier movement?

1. The movement began in January 1920. People from various social groups participated in it with nationalist aspirations. The movement started with middle-class participated in the cities.

2. Thousands of students left the government controlled schools and colleges; teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their practice.

3. Gandhi made it clear that the movement must remain non-violent. This should be launched in stages – it would start with renunciation of titles followed by boycott of all British institutions and should end with non-payment of taxes.

4. The Non-cooperation was a widespread mass movement in which people from all sections and regions participated. Earlier movements were restricted mainly to Bengal and Maharashtra

5. Participation of women and students was larger than before.

6. The concept of Satyagraha and non-violent resistance was imbibed by the people for the first time. Gandhiji leadership brought a great enthusiasm among people.

Q. 23.  Examine incidents leading to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. How did the  Government react to Satyagraha?

Ans. On 13 April 1919, the infamous Jallianwala Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of peole gathered in an enclosed ground called Jallianwalla Bagh to attend a meeting. Being strangers to the city they were unaware that martial law had been imposed by General Dyer. The angry General blocked the exit and ordered his troops only to open fire on the innocent crowd, killing hundreds. He declared that his aim was to create a feeling of terror and awe in the minds of the satyagrahis. This incident proved to a landmark in the history of Indian National Movement. The cruelty and atrocities committed on Indians made Gandhiji decide to start more broad-based movement in India.The government responded with repression; the people were humiliated and terrorized. The Satyagrahi’s were made to crawl and rub their noses on the ground. People were flogged and Gujranwala village in Punjab was bombed.

Q. 24.  What was the Rowlatt Act? How it affected the National movement?

Ans. The act was passed through the Imperial Legislative Council on a report of the Sedition Committee, headed by Justice Rowlatt. Through this Act, the Government gave vast powers to the police to search a place and arrest any, person without a warrant, and hold the trial without jury. This act became one of the factor due to which Gandhiji launched non-cooperation movement.

Q. 25  Why was Swaraj Party formed? By whom was the party formed?

Ans.  There were some Congress leaders who argued or advocated the idea of fighting the British from within the legislative councils. They wanted to pressurize the government for various reforms through councils. They also wanted to demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. Keeping in mind these objective, C.R. Das and Moti Lal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party in 1922.

Q. 26.  Why was the Simon Commission constituted? Why was the commission rejected by the Indians?

Ans.  The Indians members of the Central Legislative Assembly exposed the drawbacks in the Government of India Act of 1919. As a result of it, the Simon Commission was appointed in 1927 to suggest any further constitutional reforms. This commission consisted of seven members and its Chairman was Sir John Simon. However Indians boycotted the commission, because there was no Indian member in this commission. The terms of the commission appointed did not give any indication of Swaraj while the demand of the Indians was only Swaraj.

Q. 27.  Explain the role of Ambedkar in uplifting the dalits or the depressed classes

.Ans.1. Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar was of the opinion that only political empowerment would resolve their problems of social injustice.
2. Due to his efforts, they began organizing themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions and separate electorate that would choose the dalits members for legislative councils.
3. In 1930, Ambedkar entered national politics. In the same year, he organized Depressed Classes Association to make them politically more strong.
4. He was nominated as a delegate of the oppressed classes for the Second Round Table conference. In that Round Table Conference he clashed with Mahatma Gandhi by demanding separate electorates for dalits.

Nationalism In India-2

Nationalism In India-1

Q. 9 .  Why is Dandi March Significant?

Ans. Dandi March is significant because it marked the beginning of the successful Civil Disobedience Movement involving masses from all parts of the country.

Q. 10 . Mention any four factors which were responsible in arousing the spirit of nationalism in India.
1. Political unification of the country under the Britishers.
2. Destruction of India’s old social and economic system.
3. Development of modern trade and industry.
4. The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups.

Q. 11.  Explain the new economic and political situations, created during the First World War in India.

Ans .
1. The first world war led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
2. Custom duties were increased and income tax was introduced.
3. Between 1913-18 prices of commodities almost doubled leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
4. Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.

Q. 12. Explain the circumstances in which Non-cooperation Movement gradually slowed down in cities.

Ans .
1. Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
2. Similarly boycott of British institutions posed a problem because of lack of alternative Indian institutions to replace them.
3. So the students began to go back to government schools and lawyers returned to government courts.

Q. 13. How did the First World War help in the growth of the National Movement in India?

1. It led to an increase in expenditure which was met by the additional taxes on Indian people.
2. The war led to a price rise – leading to extreme hardships for the common people.
3. Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and this forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
4. Acute shortage of food accompanied by influenza epidemic led to famine and misery.
5. The Indian began to realize, that they were unnecessarily drawn in a war which was for British imperialist interest. This feeling united the Indians against the British who began to demand reforms.
6. Fortunately during the period of war Gandhiji returned to India from South Africa and gave leadership to people by organizing Satyagraha which was the mass struggle against foreign authorities.

Q.14.   What is meant by Satyagraha, as advocated by Gandhiji?

1. Satyagraha was a novel method of mass agitation and resistance used by gandhiji in South Africa in his struggle against the racist regime. Later it was applied by Gandhiji in Indian national movement.
2. The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and non-violence.
3. He felt that if the cause was true, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
4. Without seeking revenge or being an aggressor, a satragrahi could win the battle through non-violence.
5. It could be done by using moral force, by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.

Nationalism In India

10th History-Chapter 2  - Nationalism In India
Nationalism: Patriotism; a feeling of collective belonging of one’s nation; sharing common feelings of identity. Nation-state: A state having common territory and inhabited by people sharing common language, race, culture, etc.

Rowlatt Act: An Act passed by British Government in India in 1919. It authorized the government to arrest and imprisons a person without trial. The Act was against civil rights.
Civil disobedience: Refusal to comply with certain laws as a method of peaceful protest.

Gudem Rebels: The people who participated in the militant guerrilla movement in the Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh. It was a resistance movement against the colonial government who prevented the people from entering the forests for grazing their cattle or collect firewood or fruits from the region.

Q .1. What was the notion of Swaraj for plantation workers in Assam?

Ans. For plantation workers in Assam, Swaraj or freedom meant the right to move freely and retaining a link with the village from which they had come.

Q . 2.  Why did Indian leader oppose Rowlatt Act in 1919?

1. Rowlatt Act was opposed by Indians as it deprived the people of their civil rights.
2. It authorized the government to imprison people without trial.

Q . 3.  When was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed? Mention any one of its provisions.

Ans.. Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931
1. Gandhi agreed to attend the 2nd round table conference to be held in London.
2. The government would release political prisoners except those who were charged with violence in exchange for the withdrawal of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Q. 4.  Why was Champaran Satyagraha organized?

Ans. Champaran Satyagraha was organized in 1916 by Gandhiji to protest against the oppressive plantation system in indigo plantations of Bihar.

Q. 5.  With what aim was Satyagraha organized in Kheda in 1917?

Ans.  The main aim of Kheda Satyagraha was to support the peasants, affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic the peasants of Kheda could not pay revenue demanded by the landlords.

Q. 6 .  What was the significance of the Calcutta and Nagpur Sessions of Congress held in 1920?

Ans. At Calcutta Session of congress in September 1920, Gandhiji convinced other leaders of the need for starting a Non-cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as swaraj.

Q. 7 .  Who was Baba Ramchandra? Mention any two contribution of Baba Ramchandra in peasants movement.

Ans. Baba Ramchandra was a sanyasi leader of peasants movement who on behalf of peasants demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. He worked in the region of Awadh.

Q. 8 .  Where is Gudem hills situated? Why is this place remembered in the history of national movement?

Ans. Gudem Hills is situated in Andhra Pradesh. This place became well known because during Non-cooperation movement a militant guerrilla movement was organized here under Alladi Sitaram Raju.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China-3

The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China-3 read here

Q.12.  Explain the reasons for the popularity of ‘Go East Movement’.

Ans. In the first decade of 20th century ‘Go East Movement’ became popular. In 1907-08, some 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire modern education. Their primary objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam, overthrow the puppet emperor and reestablish the Nyuyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French. Since Japan had resisted colonization by European power and had a victory over Russia in 1907, the Vietnamese drew inspiration from them. They appeal the Japanese as fellow Asians for arms and to help in driving away the French. They established a branch of Restoration society in Tokyo. But Japanese ministry of interior clamped down the movement in 1908 and main leaders were deported.

Q.13.  Explain the two different visions in opposing foreign domination in Vietnam.

Ans. Some intellectuals felt that Vietnamese tradition have to be strengthened to resist the domination of the west, while the others felt that Vietnam had to learn from the west even while opposing foreign domination. The differing visions led to complex debates. In late 19th century resistance to French domination was very often led by Confucian scholars and revolutionists like Phan Boi Chan who formed the revolutionary society. Phan Chu Trinh was intensely hostile to the monarchy and was opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. His desire was to establish a democratic republic. He was influenced by western democratic ideals.

Q.14.   Evaluate the role of Vietnamese women during 1960s war period and after the war in peace time.

1. When casualties in the war increased after 1960, women in large numbers joined the war and fought selflessly and continued and resistance movement.
2. They helped in nursing the wounded, constructing underground rooms and tunnels for hiding. Along the Ho Chi Minh Trail young volunteers kept open 2195 km of strategic roads and guarded at key points.
3. They built six airstrips, neutralized tens of thousands of bombs, transported cargo, weapons and food.
4. Women militia shot down planes. For instance Nguyen Thi Xuan was reported to have shot down a jet with just twenty bullets.
5. They were young, brave and dedicated. They were not only warriors but worked with dedication in other fields also. They carried rifle in one hand and hammer in the other.

Q.15.  Who were Trung Sisters?

Ans. In 1913, the nationalist leader Phan Boi Chau wrote a lay based on the lives of Trung sister who in 39-43 C.E. fought against Chinese domination. These two sisters were depicted as patriots who fought to save Vietnam from Chinese domination and were glorified and depicted in paintings and novels.

Q.16 .  Examine the decisions taken about Vietnam in 1954 negotiations at Geneva.

Ans. The Vietminh was able to drive the Japanese out of Hanoi in September 1945 and set up a democratic Republic with Ho Chi Minh as president. The republic however had to face difficulties.
The French who left during the Second World War wanted to regain control after the war, they set up a puppet emperor Bao Dai and drove the Vietminh out. After a long struggle for 9 years, Bao Dai and the French troops were defeated in the battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The defeat of France was followed by Geneva Convention where negotiations for peace began and number of decisions was taken.
The Vietnamese were persuaded to accept and division of Vietnam. As a result North and South Vietnam were separated. Ho Chi Minh and the communists took over power in the North while Bao Dai’s regime was in power in the South

Q.17 .  What was the theme of the book “the History of the loss Vietnam?

Ans. The book focused on two connected themes- the loss of sovereignty and the severing of ties with China.

Q.18 .  How did the French try to suppress Hoa Hao Movement?

Ans.  The French exiled the founder Huynh Phu So to Laos and sent his followers to concentration camps.

Q. 19 . What was meant by the civilizing mission of the colonizers?

Ans.  The imperial European nations felt that they were the most advanced and civilized people of the world. So it was their duty to introduce modern ideas to uncivilized or barbaric (uncultured, brutal) cultures of the world. This is known as the civilizing mission of the colonizers.

Q . 20.  Who was Hyn Phu So?

Ans. Hun Pu So was the founder of the Hoa Hao movement. He helped the poor and performed miracles.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China-2

10th History chapter-1

Q. 6. Mention the steps taken by the French to dismantle Chinese influence on Vietnam.

1. They established French school for the Vietnamese. They wanted to replace Chinese language in school either by French or by Vietnamese.
2. Some policy makers emphasized the use of French language as the medium of instruction. They felt that through this the Vietnamese would learn about French culture and civilization.
3. In 1907, Tonkin Free School was set up to provide western style education to spread French culture.
4. In religion the French introduced Christianity in Vietnam and gave challenge to Confucianism, the Chinese religion followed by many Vietnamese.

Q. 7.  Why and how were the Vietnamese used in the rat hunt in 1902-03?

Ans. In 1903, the modern part of Hanoi was struck with bubonic plague. To prevent the invasion a rat hunt started. The French used Vietnamese workers for this and paid them for each rat they killed. Since the rats had to be caught in thousands, the whole situation was going out of hand. Since the dirty work was to be done only by the Vietnamese, they began collective bargaining. Another innovative method they took was they clipped only the tail of the rat to show as proof of killing and released the rat. So the process could be repeated. Some people began to raise rats to make money. Failing miserably in preventing the menace the French had to scrap the whole programme.

Q. 8. Explain the political ideas of Phan Chu Trinh.

Ans. Phan Chu Trinh was a nationalist Vietnamese leader; he was intensely hostile to monarchy and was opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. His desire was to establish a democratic republic. He was profoundly influenced by the democratic ideals of the west. Phan Chu Trinh rejected revolutionary ideas of Phan Bio Chau. Unlike his he did not want to wholesale rejection of the western civilization. He was inspired by the French revolutionary ideals of the liberty and equality.

Q .9.  What id referred as Scholars Revolt?

Ans. The Scholars Revolt of 1868 was an early revolt against French control and spread of Christianity. It was led by angry officials at the imperial court. They organized an uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces and killed nearly a thousand catholics.

1. It was a movement which was led by officials at the imperial court in 1868.
2. The revolt was against the spread of Catholicism and French power in Vietnam.
3. More than 1000 catholics were killed in the revolt.
4. The French crushed the movement, but this uprising served to inspire other patriots to rise up against them.

Q.10.  What is the significance of Vietnamese Trail? How were supplies transported?

Ans. The Vietnamese trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads which moved through Laos and Cambodia that is from North to South. The trail was used to transport men and material during the course of Vietnamese war. The Trail was improved in 1950’s. From 1967 about 20,000 Vietnamese troops came to the south every month through the trail. It had support bases and hospitals all the way.


1. The story of the Ho Chi Minh trail is one way of understanding the nature of the war that the Vietnamese fought against the United States.
2. It symbolizes how the Vietnamese used their limited resources against the biggest military power.
3. The trail was used by about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops who came to the south each month using this trail.

Q. 11.  How was education used as a weapon by the Vietnamese to fight against the colonialism?

1. Vietnamese teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum framed by the French. Sometimes there was open opposition and at other times, there was silence resistance. As the number of teachers increased in the lower classes they quietly modified the text and criticized what was stated.
2. When a Vietnamese girl was terminated over the issue of front seat the whole school protested, and forced the authorities to take her back. It was a victory for the education class.
3. Students were inspired by patriotic feelings. By the 1920s students were forming various political parties.
4. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. On the other hand, the educated class wanted to use education as a mean to fight against the colonial rule