Thursday, April 28, 2011

Nationalism In India-3

Nationalism In India
Q. 15 .  Examine the Satyagraha movement organized by Gandhiji between 1916-18.OrWith what major aims were the peasants movement organized in 1920?

Ans.1. Between 1916, he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
2. In 1917, he took up the cause of the peasants of Kheda district of Ahmedabad to fight for reduction of revenue through Satyagraha Movement.
3. In 1918, Gandhiji organized Satyagraha Movement against cotton mill owners.
4. These movements were the first mass movements in Indian National Movement. These inculcated self confidence and a spirit to fight against injustice among people.

Q .16 .  Why was the Khilafat Movement supported by Gandhiji in 1919? What was his main aim?

Ans. In 1919, Gandhiji supported the Khilafat Movement to protest against the breakup of Ottoman (Turkish) empire by the British and humiliation caused to Turkish Caliph who was also the head of the Muslims of the whole world. Gandhiji also wanted to unite the Hindus and Muslims to protest against the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. In this movement, Gandhiji extended the support of Congress towards the Muslims. He saw the opportunity of uniting the Hindus and Muslims for the cause of India’s freedom

Q.17 .  State any four factors responsible for the growth of nationalism in India.

Ans. 1. Result of colonial exploitation.

2. Understanding of the true nature of the British rule.
3. Racial discrimination.
4. Role of Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders.
5. Impact of nationalist literature, songs, poems, folklore.

Q. 18 . Describe the main features of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Ans.1. First successful mass movement.
2. People from all sections participated – role of students; people, young and old, joined.
3. Role of women – for the first time women in large numbers left the comfort of their homes and joined the movement.
4. For the first time the movement was launched with the goal of Purna Swaraj or complete independence.
5. The people could successfully defy British laws.

Q. 19 . When and why was the Poona Pact signed?

Ans. Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar was nominated as a delegate of the oppressed classes for the Second Round Table Conference. In that Round Table Conference, he clashed with Mahatma Gandji by demanding separate electorates for the dalits. When the British government accepted Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. The issue was eventually resolved through the Poona Pact of September 1932. It gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

Q. 20. What is known as Gandhi-Irwin Pact?

Ans. During the course of Civil Disobedience Movement 1,00,000 people were arrested.

1. In such a situation the Viceroy Lord Irwin signed an agreement with Gandhiji on 5th March 1931 because he wanted the Congress to attend the Round Table conference in London. This agreement is referred to as a Gandhi-Irwin Pact.

2. Gandhi promised to call off Civil Disobedience Movement and consented to participate in the 2nd Round Table Conference in London. The Viceroy agreed to release the political prisoners who were not charged with violence.

3. In December 1931, Gandhiji attended the conference but returned disappointed as the negotiations in London conference failed.

Q. 21.  Why did the Muslims fail to respond to the call of a united struggle during Civil Disobedience Movement?

Ans.  Some of the Muslim political organizations in India were lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. After the Khilafat and Non-cooperation Movement, a large section of the Muslims felt alienated from the Congress During this period the relations between Hindus and Muslims worsened, each community organized religious processions with militant fervor, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes in various cities. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.
Q . 22.  Examine the aims and methods of Non-Cooperation. How did the movement make a departure from earlier movement?

1. The movement began in January 1920. People from various social groups participated in it with nationalist aspirations. The movement started with middle-class participated in the cities.

2. Thousands of students left the government controlled schools and colleges; teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their practice.

3. Gandhi made it clear that the movement must remain non-violent. This should be launched in stages – it would start with renunciation of titles followed by boycott of all British institutions and should end with non-payment of taxes.

4. The Non-cooperation was a widespread mass movement in which people from all sections and regions participated. Earlier movements were restricted mainly to Bengal and Maharashtra

5. Participation of women and students was larger than before.

6. The concept of Satyagraha and non-violent resistance was imbibed by the people for the first time. Gandhiji leadership brought a great enthusiasm among people.

Q. 23.  Examine incidents leading to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. How did the  Government react to Satyagraha?

Ans. On 13 April 1919, the infamous Jallianwala Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of peole gathered in an enclosed ground called Jallianwalla Bagh to attend a meeting. Being strangers to the city they were unaware that martial law had been imposed by General Dyer. The angry General blocked the exit and ordered his troops only to open fire on the innocent crowd, killing hundreds. He declared that his aim was to create a feeling of terror and awe in the minds of the satyagrahis. This incident proved to a landmark in the history of Indian National Movement. The cruelty and atrocities committed on Indians made Gandhiji decide to start more broad-based movement in India.The government responded with repression; the people were humiliated and terrorized. The Satyagrahi’s were made to crawl and rub their noses on the ground. People were flogged and Gujranwala village in Punjab was bombed.

Q. 24.  What was the Rowlatt Act? How it affected the National movement?

Ans. The act was passed through the Imperial Legislative Council on a report of the Sedition Committee, headed by Justice Rowlatt. Through this Act, the Government gave vast powers to the police to search a place and arrest any, person without a warrant, and hold the trial without jury. This act became one of the factor due to which Gandhiji launched non-cooperation movement.

Q. 25  Why was Swaraj Party formed? By whom was the party formed?

Ans.  There were some Congress leaders who argued or advocated the idea of fighting the British from within the legislative councils. They wanted to pressurize the government for various reforms through councils. They also wanted to demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. Keeping in mind these objective, C.R. Das and Moti Lal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party in 1922.

Q. 26.  Why was the Simon Commission constituted? Why was the commission rejected by the Indians?

Ans.  The Indians members of the Central Legislative Assembly exposed the drawbacks in the Government of India Act of 1919. As a result of it, the Simon Commission was appointed in 1927 to suggest any further constitutional reforms. This commission consisted of seven members and its Chairman was Sir John Simon. However Indians boycotted the commission, because there was no Indian member in this commission. The terms of the commission appointed did not give any indication of Swaraj while the demand of the Indians was only Swaraj.

Q. 27.  Explain the role of Ambedkar in uplifting the dalits or the depressed classes

.Ans.1. Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar was of the opinion that only political empowerment would resolve their problems of social injustice.
2. Due to his efforts, they began organizing themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions and separate electorate that would choose the dalits members for legislative councils.
3. In 1930, Ambedkar entered national politics. In the same year, he organized Depressed Classes Association to make them politically more strong.
4. He was nominated as a delegate of the oppressed classes for the Second Round Table conference. In that Round Table Conference he clashed with Mahatma Gandhi by demanding separate electorates for dalits.

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