Wednesday, June 25, 2014

Control and Coordination Study Material for class 10

10th Control and coordination
The organ system in an animal that serves to coordinate and control the functioning  of all other organ systems in the body is known as nervous system.

Nervous system works with the endocrine system to communicate, integrate and coordinate the functions of various organs and systems in our body and helps the body to respond to the external stimuli.

 In humans, the nervous system has two main divisions:
• The central nervous system (CNS)
• The peripheral nervous system (PNS)

The central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord. It is regarded as the ‘thinker’ or ‘information processor’ in the body.

The peripheral nervous system includes the sensory and motor nerves and connects the central nervous system with the sense organs, muscles and glands of the body. The peripheral nervous system is regarded as ‘actor’ or ‘performer’ in the body.

Nerve cell or neuron

A neuron is the basic unit of nervous tissue. Our nervous system contains about 10 billion nerve cells, which communicate with each other in a specific manner.

Structure of the neuron

Each neuron has a central area called the cell body or cyton.

The cell body has a large central nucleus and cytoplasm. Several short, thread like branches called dendrites arise from the cell body. One branch arising out of the cell body is very long in comparison to others. This branch is called axon or nerve fibre.

Axon may or may not be covered by a fatty sheath called myelin sheath. This covering is missing at intervals. These gaps on the sheath are known as nodes of Ranvier.

Types of neurons
i. Sensory neurons, which transmit impulse from receptor (sense organ) to coordinator (brain or spinal cord).
ii. Motor neurons, which transmit impulse from modulator to effectors (muscle or glands).
iii. Connecting neurons, which connect sensory and motor neurons, found in the grey matter.


Nerves are thread like structures, which emerge from brain and spinal cord and branch out to almost all parts of the body. The nerves are composed of axons or nerve fibres bundled together like the strands of an electric cable 

Kinds of nerves

There are three kinds of nerves. These are:

i. Sensory nerves: These nerves contain sensory fibres. Sensory nerves bring impulse from sense organs to the brain or the spinal cord.
ii. Motor nerves: These nerves contain motor fibres. Motor nerves carry impulse from brain or spinal cord to the effector organ like muscle or glands.
iii. Mixed nerves: These nerves contain both sensory and motor nerve fibres and perform a mixed function.

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Saturday, June 21, 2014


Question:  How does baking powder differ from baking soda?
Answer:  Baking soda is a single compound which has sodium hydrogen carbonate which is  alkaline (basic) in nature
Baking powder is a mixture of sodium hydrogencarbonate and a mild edible(eatable) acid such as tartaric acid. When baking powder mixes with water, then the sodium hydrogencarbonate reacts with tartaric acid to evolve carbon dioxide gas which gets trapped in the wet dough and bubbles out slowly making the cake to rise and hence 'soft and spongy'.The equation which takes place can be shown as:
NaHCO+ H+  ----> Na+ +  CO+ H2O
Question:  What will happen if heating is not controlled while preparing Plaster of Paris from gypsum?
Answer:  It may be noted that the temperature should be controlled carefully. It should not be allowed to rise above 152°C (425K) because, if whole of the water is lost then anhydrous calcium sulphate is produced, which is called dead burnt plaster and it does not have the properties of Plaster of Paris.

Question:   Explain how pH change in the river water can endanger the lives of aquatic animals.
Answer:  Living organisms can survive only in a narrow range of pH change. When pH of rain water is less than 5.6, it is called acid rain. When acid rain flows into the rivers, it lowers the pH of the river water. The survival of aquatic life in such rivers becomes difficult.

 Question:  What are the two main ways in which common salt (sodium chloride) occurs in nature? How is common salt obtained from sea water? Explain
Answer:  Salt exists in two forms in nature i.e. in sea water and in the form of Halite a mineral rock of common salt. Common salt can be prepared by evaporation of sea water. Sea water is collected in division of land and it is allowed to evaporate under sunlight. Water is evaporated leaving behind mixtures of salt, form which common salt is separated by dissolving it in suitable reagent and then, recrystallizing salt from the solution.
Question: Why aqueous solution of sodium carbonate is basic in nature?

Answer: Sodium bicarbonate is an amphoteric compound. Aqueous solutions are mildly alkaline due to the formation of carbonic acid and hydroxide ion:
NaHCO− 3 + H2O → H2CO3 + OH−  
Question: Why is an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride acidic in nature?
Answer: A basic component is the one that produces hydroxide (OH-) ions when dissolved in water. In aqueous solution of ammonium chloride, ammonium ions (NH4+) first associate with H2O and form ammonia and hydroxide ions.
NH4Cl + H2O = NH4+ + HCl ( equation 1)
NH4+ + H2O = NH3 + OH- (equation 3)
Since ammonium ions produce hydroxide ions, NH4+ are considered to be the basic components.
Question: Dry ammonia has no action on litmus paper but a solution of ammonia in water turns red litmus paper blue. Why is it so?

Answer: In dry state Ammonia contains no hydroxyl ions. On dissolving in water, it forms NH4OH which dissociates to give NH4 + and OH-ions. Thus solution becomes basic and turns red litmus paper blue.
NH3 (g) + H2O (l) ---------------> NH4OH (aq)
NH4OH (aq) --------------> NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Question:  What happens when (a) Solid sodium hydrogen carbonate is heated, (b) Chlorine gas is passed through dry slaked lime, (c) Gypsum is heated to a temperature of 373 K?
Answer: (a) When Solid sodium hydrogen carbonate is heated  from sodium chloride Na2CO3.10H2O (washing soda).
2NaHCO3 --------Heat---------->  Na2CO3 +H2O+CO2
(b) when Chlorine gas is passed through dry slaked lime, Bleaching powder is produced. Bleaching powderis represented as CaOCl2, though the actual composition is quite complex.
Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 → CaOCl2 + H2O
(c) if Gypsum is heated to a temperature of 373 K it forms plaster of Paris, CaSO4 ½ H2O
CaSO4 2H2O --- -373 K ------>  CaSO4 ½ H2O + 3/2 H2O
Question: Give the Names of Raw Materials that are required for the manufacture of  washing soda by solvay process. Write the reactions involved in the   process.
 Answer:  Common salt : NaCl.Sodium chloride.  Ammonia : NH3 .Ammonia
Lime Stone : CaCO3.Lime stone (Calcium carbonate)
 H2O + NH3 + NaCl + CO2  -----------> NaHCO3 + NH4Cl
2NaHCO3 ---------- Heat------>  Na2CO3+ CO2+H2O
CaCO3 ----------- Heat > CO2+CaO
 CaO + H2O --------->  Ca (OH)2 
Ca(OH)2+ 2NH4Cl ------------> CaCl2 +2NH3+2H2O
 Question:  What is efflorescence? Name one compound which shows efflorescence? support your answer with reaction?
Answer:  The processes of loosing water of crystallization, when the substance is exposed to air for long time to form anhydrous or monohydric  substance is called as efflorescence.  
Na2CO3 10 H2O, Sodium carbonate deca hydrate is one example. 
 Na2CO3 , 10 H2O -------------->Na2CO3 H2O + 9H2O
Question:   why is calcium sulphate hemihydrate called ‘Plaster of Paris’ ?

Answer: Plaster of Paris gets its name from large gypsum deposits in Montmartre in Paris. We know that plaster of Paris, which is chemically calcium sulphate hemihydrate is obtained by heating gypsum. So the origin of the name 'Plaster of Paris' is the fact that the source material gypsum is found in large deposits at Montmartre in Paris
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Wednesday, June 18, 2014

Ch. 7 - Control and Coordination class 10 Trendsetter solved CBSE Test paper-02

Class 10 Trendsetter solved CBSE Test paper-02
1. What is a neuron? (1 mark)
Ans: Neuron is the structural &functional unit of nervous system.
2. Give an example of plant hormone that promotes growth. (1 mark)
Ans: auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins
3. What part of the brain maintains posture and equilibrium of the body? (1 mark)
Ans: Cerebellum controls coordination and adjustment of movements (equilibrium) and posture
4. Which parts of the body produce growth regulators? (1 mark)
Ans: Pituitary Gland
5.What is synapse ?
Ans: The junction between neurons is called synapse.
5. List two functions performed by ovaries in a human female. (1 mark)
Ans: (a) Produces ova or egg. (b) Hormones Oestrogen and Progesterone.
6. What does a stem (or shoot) do in a response to light? (1 mark)
Ans: The stem is positively phototropic (grown towards light)
7. Name the 2 hormones secreted by pancreas. Write one function of each hormone. (2 marks)
Ans: (i) Insulin is secreted by the beta cells and like other hormones, passes directly into the blood. Insulin is required to convert glucose into glycogen (glycogensesis) and store it in liver.
(ii) The alpha cells of pancreas secrete glucagon, the metabolic effects of which are opposite to those of insulin. It causes the breakdown of liver glycogen, thereby releasing glucose into the blood stream.
8. How are involuntary actions and reflex actions different from each other? (2 marks)
Ans: Reflex actions are rapid automatic response to a stimulus without the conscious involvement of the brain. E.g.: Withdrawing the hand from a hot object.
Involuntary actions are controlled by the brain but not by our conscious thinking. E.g.: Beating of the heart, peristaltic movement of the intestines
9. What is the difference between a reflex action and walking? (2 marks)
Ans: Reflex action is an involuntary action and mostly controlled my spinal cord whereas walking is a voluntary action and it is controlled by brain.
10. What is the need for a system of control and coordination in an organism? (2 marks)
Ans:  (a). Maintain a steady state of stability in constantly changing environment
 (b) For adjustment of the vital activities of life
(c) To maintain homeostasis.
11. Distinguish between cerebrum and spinal cord. (2 marks)
Spinal cord
It is the largest portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres
Portion of Central nervous system that conducts impulse to and from the brain
In cerebrum grey matter covers the white matter.
In spinal cord white matter covers the grey matter.
Controls different thought and action such as orientation, recognition, emotions,  memory and speech.
The spinal cord carries out sensory, integrative, and motor functions in order to transmit impulses to the brain.

12. Define the following terms:  (i) nerve impulses (ii) axon (iii) olfactory receptors. (3 marks)
Ans: (i) Nerve impulse : A nerve impulse is a way of two nerve cells to communicate with one another. Nerve impulses are mostly electrical signals along the dendrites. Neurons, also known as brain cells, produce nerve impulses. A nerve impulse is also called an action potential.
(ii) axon : An axon  also known as a nerve fibre is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell or neuron  that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles and glands.
(iii) Olfactory receptors: These are a pair of small, solid, cube shaped bodies. They are fully covered by cerebrum. They receive impulse for smell
13. What is the function of receptors in our body? Think of situations where receptors do not work properly. What problems are likely to arise? (3 marks)
Ans: Receptors are sensory structures (organs/tissues or cells) present all over the body. The receptors are
either grouped in case of eye or ear, or scattered in case of skin.

Functions of receptors:
(i) They sense the external stimuli such as heat or pain.
(ii) They also trigger an impulse in the sensory neuron which sends message to the spinal cord.

When the receptors are damaged, the external stimuli transferring signals to the brain are not felt. For example, in the case of damaged receptors, if we accidentally touch any hot object, then our hands might get burnt as damaged receptors cannot perceive the external stimuli of heat and pain.

14. (a) What are ‘hormones’?
(b) List four characteristics of hormones.
(c) Name the hormones required for the following:
(i) Functioning of memory glands.         (ii) Regulation of calcium and phosphate in blood.
(iii) Lowering of blood glucose.            (iv) Development of moustache and beard in human male
Ans:(a) Hormones are chemical substances which are directly poured into the blood stream by the endocrine glands and have effects on special target organs.
(b) General characteristics of hormones are as follows:
a)    Hormones are secreted by endocrine cells.
b)    Hormones are chemical messengers.
c)    The are chemical signals that circulate in the body fluids.
d)    The hormones regulate the behavior of the target cells.
e)    Hormones, unlike enzymes do not catalyze any reaction.
(c) The hormones required for the following:
(i) Functioning of memory glands. Follicle stimulating Hormone      
(ii) Regulation of calcium and phosphate in blood.:- parathyroid hormone
(iii) Lowering of blood glucose.-  insulin 
(iv) Development of moustache and beard in human male : Testosterone

15. (a) What is autonomic nervous system? Name the subsystem in which it is subdivided? [2]
(b) How do auxins help in bending of stem towards light ? Explain.[3]
(a) The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is that part of the peripheral nervous system that largely acts independent of conscious control (involuntarily) and consists of nerves in cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and exocrine and endocrine glands. It is responsible for maintenance functions (metabolism, cardiovascular activity, temperature regulation, digestion) that have a reputation for being outside of conscious control .
                                     The autonomic nervous system is typically divided into two main subsystems, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

(b) When growing plants detect light a hormone called Auxin, synthesized at the shoot tip helps the cells to grow longer. When light is coming from one side of the plant, Auxin diffuses towards the shady side of the shoot. This concentration of Auxin stimulates the cells to grow longer on the side of the shoot which is away from light. Thus plant appears to bend towards light.

Monday, June 16, 2014

Class10 life process CBSE Test paper - 05 [With Solution]

Life Process class 10 Trend setter solved CBSE Test paper-05

1. Name the tissue associated with the conduction water in plants. (1 mark)
Ans: Xylem tissue

2. What is source of O2 liberated during photosynthesis? (1 mark)
Ans: The main source of oxygen in the atmosphere during photosynthesis is photosynthetic [green] plants, cyanobacteria and algae which releases oxygen during photosynthesis. Other sources include the photolysis of atmospheric water and nitrous oxides by ultraviolet light and the free oxygen released from the silicates and mineral oxides present in the earth crust. 

3. In which part of the digestive canal food is absorbed? (1 mark)
Ans: small intestine

4. Which organelle of the cell is known as ‘power house’? (1 mark)
Ans: Mitochondria

5. Why oxygenated and deoxygenated blood is separated in mammals and birds? (1 mark)
Ans: Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood is separated in mammals and birds as Such kind of separation allows a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the body . Birds and mammals constantly use energy to maintain their body temperature.

6. Name the functional unit of human kidney. (1 mark)
Ans: Nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney.

7. ‘Respiration is a vital function of the body’. Justify. (2 marks)
Ans: Respiration is the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation.  Through this process, oxygen is inhaled.  T his inhaled oxygen is used to burn/oxidize/break down the food (glucose). This reaction produces energy which is used to carry out various activities going on in our body. Our body need continuous supply of energy to carry out these activities.  So, respiration is continuous processes which make us able to meet energy demand of our body. If respiration comes to halt the person will die

8. Differentiate between autotroph and heterotrophs. (2 marks)
Ans: Autotrophic nutrition means that the organism is preparing its own food and is not dependent on any other organism for food. Green plants are autographs.
Heterotrophic nutrition means that the organism does not prepare its own food and is dependent on other organisms for food. All organisms which are not among green plants are heterotrophic.

9. State the two vital functions of the human kidney. (2 marks)
Ans: Function of Kidneys:
a)    Absorption of water and salt
b)    Removal of waste materials like urea, ammonia etc from blood
c)    Blood pressure control

10. Mention the role of the valves in maintaining blood flow in the heart. (2 marks)

Ans: The valves present in the heart normally allow the blood to flow in only one direction. There are four valves in the heart – mitral valve, tricuspid valve, bicuspid valve and pulmonary valve. These valves control the flow of blood by opening and closing through the heart at the time of contraction.

11. What is the structural difference between the auricles and ventricles? (2 marks)
Ans: The arteries have thick, elastic walls. They do not have valves
The Veins do not  have thick, elastic walls. They have valves.

12. How are lungs designed in human beings to maximize the area for exchange of gases(3marks)
Ans: Within the lungs, the bronchi divides into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchus which finally terminate in balloon-like structures which are called alveoli. The alveoli provide a surface where the exchange of gases can take place. The walls of the alveoli contain an extensive network of blood-vessels.
13. How are water and minerals transport in plants? (3 marks)
Ans: The components of xylem tissue (tracheids and vessels) of roots, stems, and leaves are interconnected to form a continuous system of water-conducting channels that reaches all parts of the plant. Transpiration creates a suction pressure, as a result of which water is forced into the xylem cells of the roots. Then there is a steady movement of water from the root xylem to all the plant parts through the interconnected water-conducting channels.

14. How is food transported in plants? (3 marks)
Ans: Food is transported in plants through phloem. The transport in phloem is an active process and involves use of energy. The energy in the form of ATP created osmotic gradient which results in transportation of food through phloem.

15. (i) What are the functions of liver and pancreas in the digestive system? (5 marks)
(ii) Which part of the body secretes bile? Where is bile stored?  (iii) What is trypsin? What is its function?
Ans:(i) Liver and pancreas play key roles in the digestive system. Liver secretes bile juice which helps in emulsification and digestion of fat molecules. It also aids in absorption of fat soluble vitamins like A, D E, K. While pancreas secrete pancreatic juice containing several enzymes that help in carbohydrate metabolism.
 (ii) Bile is secreted by liver. It is stored in the gall bladder till required.

 (iii) Trypsin is secreted by the duodenum of small intestine. When proteins are digested in the stomach the acidic medium is passed as such into the small intestine. The small intestine is incapable of handling such low pH and neither can its enzymes function. Hence Trypsin is released to neutralize the acidity

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Sunday, June 15, 2014

Class10 life process CBSE Test paper - 05 [With Solution]

Life Process class 10 Trend setter solved CBSE Test paper-04
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (Class-10)       Chapter 6 : Life Process
1. Name the artificial method for the removal of liquid nitrogenous waste from body. (1 mark)
Ans:  Dialysis
2. Name any three waste products of plants? (1 mark)
Ans:  The gums, resins and latexes
3. Name three excretory organs of man. (1 mark)
Ans:  lungs, kidney and skin
4. Name the part of plants which helps in transportation. (1 mark)
Ans:  Phloem tissue
5. Name the juice secreted by the liver. (1 mark)
Ans:  Bile
6. What is the function of digestive enzymes? (2 marks)
Ans:  Digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, pepsin, trypsin, etc. help in the breaking down of complex food particles into simple ones. These simple particles can be easily absorbed by the blood and thus transported to all the cells of the body.
7. What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food? (2 marks)
Ans:  The salivary glands secrete the first of the digestive juices, the saliva. In the digestion process, the saliva helps the teeth and tongue to masticate and mix up the food thoroughly. Mucus in saliva helps in lubricating and adhering food particles into a bolus.  Then the bolus conveyed to pharynx for further digestion. Lysosomes present in saliva acts as an antibacterial agent that prevents infection.
8. Point out two differences between an artery and a vein. (2 marks)
Ans:  Artery
a. Vessels which carry blood from the heart to various body parts
b. Arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart except pulmonary artery
a. Vessels which carry blood from the various body parts to the heart
b. Veins carry deoxygenated blood from the various body parts except pulmonary vein

9. What do you mean by double circulation of blood? (2 marks)
Ans:  The human heart is divided into four chambers − the right atrium, the right ventricle, the left atrium, and the left ventricle.
Flow of blood in the heart  :
·         The heart has superior and inferior vena cava, which carries de-oxygenated blood from the upper and lower regions of the body respectively and supplies this de-oxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart.
Flow of blood in   the human heart
·         The right atrium then contracts and passes the de-oxygenated blood to the right ventricle, through an auriculo-ventricular aperture.
·         Then the right ventricle contracts and passes the de-oxygenated blood into the two pulmonary arteries, which pumps it to the lungs where the blood becomes oxygenated. From the lungs, the pulmonary veins transport the oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart.
·         Then the left atrium contracts and through the auriculo-ventricular aperture, the oxygenated blood enters the left ventricle.
·         The blood passes to aorta from the left ventricle. The aorta gives rise to many arteries that distribute the oxygenated blood to all the regions of the body.
Therefore, the blood goes twice through the heart. This is known as double circulation

10. Write any two points of difference between respiration in plants and animals? (2 marks)
Ans:  Respiration in plants. 
a)    In plants separate respiratory organs are absent 
b)    The rate of respiration is slow. 
c)    They lack respiratory surface 
Respiration in animals 
a)    In animals respiratory organs are generally present 
b)    The rate of respiration is fast. 
c)    Respiratory surface is generally present. 

11. What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive? (3 marks)

Ans:  The main criteria to check for life, is the sign of breathing and respiration. If there is no sign of breathing or respirations then the given organism is not alive.

12. What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition? (3 marks)
Autotrophic nutrition
Heterotrophic nutrition
Food is synthesized from simple inorganic raw materials such as CO and water.
Food is obtained directly or indirectly from autotrophs. This food is broken down with the help of enzymes.
Presence of green pigment (chlorophyll) is necessary.
No pigment is required in this type of nutrition.
Food is generally prepared during day time.
Food can be prepared at all times.
All green plants and some bacteria have this type of nutrition.
All animals and fungi have this type of nutrition.

13. Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis? (3 marks)
the raw materials for photosynthesis

Ground water

14. What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidized to provide energy in various organism? (3 marks)

Ans:  At first glucose (6 carbon molecules) is broken in the cytoplasm of cells of all organisms. This process yields a  three carbon molecule compound called pyruvate.
Further break down of pyruvate takes place in different manners in different organisms.
1. Anaerobic Respiration
This process takes place in absence of oxygen, e.g. in yeast during fermentation. In this case pyruvate is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
2. Aerobic Respiration
In aerobic respiration, breakdown of pyruvate takes place in presence of oxygen to give rise 3 molecules of carbon dioxide and water. The release of energy in aerobic respiration is much more than anaerobic respiration.
3. Lack of Oxygen
Sometimes, when there is lack of oxygen, especially during vigorous activity, in our muscles, pyruvate is converted into lactic acid (3 carbon molecule compounds). Formation of lactic acid in muscles causes cramp.

15. (i) Draw a labelled diagram of the human respiratory system. (5 marks)
(ii) How oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged in our body during respiration?
(iii) Explain, how the air we breathe in gets cleaned while passing through the nasal passage.
Ans:  (1) respiratory system
(ii) When the air enters into the lungs through nostrils, trachea and bronchi it enters into the bronchioles, from bronchioles it moves into thin walled alveolar sacs or alveoli. Alveoli are rich in blood capillaries, at this place oxygen from air diffuses into the blood and reaches to all the cells and tissues of body this oxygen now diffuses into the cell and is utilized for the oxidation of food and production of energy in mitochondria as a result of this carbon dioxide is produced in cells, due to this increased concentration of CO2, it diffuses into the blood and is brought back to alveoli and expelled out of the lungs through trachea and nostrils.
(iii) Nasal passage: This passage is separated from oral cavity by means of a hard and bony palate. It is lined by ciliated columnar epithelial cells that are rich in mucus; it brings about warming, moistening and sterilization of air. It contains hair and mucus which entrap the dust particles.