Thursday, April 28, 2011

The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China-3

The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China-3 read here

Q.12.  Explain the reasons for the popularity of ‘Go East Movement’.

Ans. In the first decade of 20th century ‘Go East Movement’ became popular. In 1907-08, some 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire modern education. Their primary objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam, overthrow the puppet emperor and reestablish the Nyuyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French. Since Japan had resisted colonization by European power and had a victory over Russia in 1907, the Vietnamese drew inspiration from them. They appeal the Japanese as fellow Asians for arms and to help in driving away the French. They established a branch of Restoration society in Tokyo. But Japanese ministry of interior clamped down the movement in 1908 and main leaders were deported.

Q.13.  Explain the two different visions in opposing foreign domination in Vietnam.

Ans. Some intellectuals felt that Vietnamese tradition have to be strengthened to resist the domination of the west, while the others felt that Vietnam had to learn from the west even while opposing foreign domination. The differing visions led to complex debates. In late 19th century resistance to French domination was very often led by Confucian scholars and revolutionists like Phan Boi Chan who formed the revolutionary society. Phan Chu Trinh was intensely hostile to the monarchy and was opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. His desire was to establish a democratic republic. He was influenced by western democratic ideals.

Q.14.   Evaluate the role of Vietnamese women during 1960s war period and after the war in peace time.

1. When casualties in the war increased after 1960, women in large numbers joined the war and fought selflessly and continued and resistance movement.
2. They helped in nursing the wounded, constructing underground rooms and tunnels for hiding. Along the Ho Chi Minh Trail young volunteers kept open 2195 km of strategic roads and guarded at key points.
3. They built six airstrips, neutralized tens of thousands of bombs, transported cargo, weapons and food.
4. Women militia shot down planes. For instance Nguyen Thi Xuan was reported to have shot down a jet with just twenty bullets.
5. They were young, brave and dedicated. They were not only warriors but worked with dedication in other fields also. They carried rifle in one hand and hammer in the other.

Q.15.  Who were Trung Sisters?

Ans. In 1913, the nationalist leader Phan Boi Chau wrote a lay based on the lives of Trung sister who in 39-43 C.E. fought against Chinese domination. These two sisters were depicted as patriots who fought to save Vietnam from Chinese domination and were glorified and depicted in paintings and novels.

Q.16 .  Examine the decisions taken about Vietnam in 1954 negotiations at Geneva.

Ans. The Vietminh was able to drive the Japanese out of Hanoi in September 1945 and set up a democratic Republic with Ho Chi Minh as president. The republic however had to face difficulties.
The French who left during the Second World War wanted to regain control after the war, they set up a puppet emperor Bao Dai and drove the Vietminh out. After a long struggle for 9 years, Bao Dai and the French troops were defeated in the battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The defeat of France was followed by Geneva Convention where negotiations for peace began and number of decisions was taken.
The Vietnamese were persuaded to accept and division of Vietnam. As a result North and South Vietnam were separated. Ho Chi Minh and the communists took over power in the North while Bao Dai’s regime was in power in the South

Q.17 .  What was the theme of the book “the History of the loss Vietnam?

Ans. The book focused on two connected themes- the loss of sovereignty and the severing of ties with China.

Q.18 .  How did the French try to suppress Hoa Hao Movement?

Ans.  The French exiled the founder Huynh Phu So to Laos and sent his followers to concentration camps.

Q. 19 . What was meant by the civilizing mission of the colonizers?

Ans.  The imperial European nations felt that they were the most advanced and civilized people of the world. So it was their duty to introduce modern ideas to uncivilized or barbaric (uncultured, brutal) cultures of the world. This is known as the civilizing mission of the colonizers.

Q . 20.  Who was Hyn Phu So?

Ans. Hun Pu So was the founder of the Hoa Hao movement. He helped the poor and performed miracles.

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