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Friday, April 3, 2020

Life Process class 10 Trend setter solved CBSE Test paper

CBSE TEST PAPER-01  SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (Class-10)    Chapter 6 : Life Process
1. What are the raw materials for photosynthesis? (1 mark)
Answer: The raw materials and other necessary items required for photosynthesis are Sunlight, Water, CO2 and Chlorophyll.
2. What is the role of bile juice in digestion? (1 mark)
Answer: Bile is alkaline in nature and it is temporarily stored in gallbladder and helps in digestion of fats,  it also helps in absorption fats.
3. Write the equation for respiration? (1 mark)


In presence of O2

 6CO2 +
6H2O   +

Pyruvic acid
Kreb cycle in mitochondria

4. Name three types of blood vessels used in the transport of blood. (1 mark)
Answer: Arteries, vein and capillaries
Note: There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.
5. Name the artificial method for the removal of liquid nitrogenous waste from body? (1 mark)
Answer: Dialysis: Dialysis is a process by which waste materials and excess water are removed from the blood. This is a normal function of our kidneys inside the body. 
6. Write any two points of difference respiration in plants and respiration in animals. (2 marks)
Respiration in plants.
Respiration in animals
1.In plants separate respiratory organs are absent
1.In animals respiratory organs are generally present
2.The rate of respiration is slow.
2.The rate of respiration is fast.
3.They lack respiratory surface
3. Respiratory surface is generally present.

7. Draw the labelled diagram of the human respiratory system. (2 marks)

8. How are the alveoli designed to maximize the exchange of gases? (2 marks)
Answer: The alveoli are present at the terminal of bronchioles. They are balloon shaped structures which increases the surface area for the exchange of gases and are richly supplied with blood vessels to take the oxygen to different cells
9. Amylase is secreted by two different glands. Name them. Write is the action of amylase on food? (2 marks)
Answer: Salivary glands are found in mouth cavity .They secrete enzyme called salivary amylase or ptyalin. It helps in digestion of starch.
Pancreas secrets pancreatic juice into small intestine. Pancreatic juice contains tyrosine and pancreatic amylase.
Pancreatic amylase is a major digestive enzyme, which can hydrolyze starch into simpler sugars, like maltose and glucose, for absorption.
10. Name the passage in sequence through which urine passes from kidneys to the outside in humans. How is urine prevented from flowing back into the ureters? (2 marks)

kidney ->  the urinary bladder -> the urethra ----> outside [via vaginal opening in women or via the penis in man]
There are valves present in ureters called as ureterovesical valves which prevent the backflow of urine.
11. State the role of the following in the human respiratory system
(i) Nasal cavity (ii) Diaphragm (iii) Alveoli (3 marks)
Answer: (i) Nasal cavity: It contains hair and mucus which entrap the dust particles.
 (ii) Diaphragm: Contract and relax to increase  and decrease the  volume of chest cavity respectively
(iii) Alveoli: it helps in exchange of air in blood. it transfer oxygen to the blood and takes carbon di oxide from the blood.
12. Give reasons for the following:
(i)The glottis is guarded by epiglottis.
(ii) The lung alveoli are covered with blood capillaries.
(iii) The wall of trachea is supported by cartilage rings. (3 marks)
Answer : (i) The epiglottis guards the entrance of the glottis and prevent flow of food into wind pipe.
(ii) Lungs alveoli are covered with blood capillaries for the exchange of gases to take place and oxygen can easily diffuse into the blood stream and be transported to various parts of the body through the heart.
(iii)   The wall of trachea is supported by cartilage rings which percent them to collapse when air is absent in them
13. Leaves of a healthy potted plant were coated with Vaseline to block the stomata. Will this plant remain healthy for long?  State three reasons for your answer. (3 marks)
Answer: By applying Vaseline on leaves stomata gets covered and transpiration stops. This prevents loss of water vapour and the moisture of the leaf retain for sometimes. But as the layer of vaselin stops all type of gaseous exchange, leaf will end up dying.
(a) Respiration will stop. (b) Transpiration will stop. (c) Photosynthesis will stop.
14. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration. (3 marks)
Answer :
(i) It occurs in all living cells of higher plants.
It occurs in bacteria, certain fungi, germinating seeds and fleshy fruits muscles.
(ii) It requires oxygen.
Oxygen in not required
(iii) The end products are CO2 and H2O.
The end products are alcohol [fungi] or lactic acid [ muscles] and CO2.
(iv) The oxidation of one molecules of glucose produces 38 ATP molecules
The number of ATP molecules produced is only 2.
some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration : bacteria, certain fungi, germinating seeds and fleshy fruits muscles
15. Describe double circulation in human beings. Why is it necessary? (3 marks)
Answer :The blood passes to aorta from the left ventricle. The aorta gives rise to many arteries that distribute the oxygenated blood to all the regions of the body. Therefore, the blood goes twice through the heart. This is known as double circulation.
Importance of double circulation:: This separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood that ensure more efficient supply of oxygen to the body cells. This also help in maintaining a constant internal temperature and allows mammals and birds to carry-out body processes more efficiently.

16. (i) Name the blood vessel that brings oxygenated blood to the human heart. (5 marks)
(ii) Which chamber of human heart receives oxygenated blood?
(iii) Explain how oxygenated blood from this chamber is sent to all parts of the body.
Ans: (i) The pulmonary vein (ii) the left atrium

Life process CBSE Study Notes class 10

Life processes – The processes that are necessary for an organism to stay alive. Eg. Nutrition, respiration, etc.

Criteria of life - (i) Growth  (ii) Movement

Nutrition - The process of taking  in food and its utilizes it to get energy, for growth, repair and maintenance, etc. and excretes the waste materials from the body is called Nutrition.

Types of nutrition   
1.      Autotrophic nutrition(Auto =self:  trophos = nourishment) E.g. Plants, Algae, blue green bacteria.

 Process – Photosynthesis (Photo=light; Synthesis= to combine)

Raw materials- (i) Carbon dioxide (ii)Water

Chlorophyll Formula :  C55H72O5N4Mg

  6CO2  +  6H2O             sunlight /    Chlorophyl  ----->      C6H12O6      +     6O2
Energy conversion- Light/Solar energy to Chemical energy

Role off Chlorophyll- To trap the sun’s energy for photosynthesis

Factors- (i) Carbon dioxide (ii) Water(iii) Light (iv) Temperature

Events/ Steps of photosynthesis-  

(i) Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll

(ii) Conversion of light energy to chemical energy & Splitting of water molecule into Hydrogen & oxygen

(iii) Reduction of Carbon dioxide to Carbohydrate

Gaseous exchange- (i) Gas used- Carbon dioxide (ii) By product - Oxygen

Source of raw materials-

(i)         Carbon dioxide –Land plants- Air, Aquatic plants- Water

(ii)      Water & Minerals - Soil

2.      Heterotrophic nutrition (Hetero =others:  trophos = nourishment) Eg. Animals, plants lacking chlorophyll like fungi.

(a)    Saprophytic nutrition: Organisms feeds on dead decaying plants or animals material. E.g. Fungi, Bacteria

(b) Parasitic nutrition: Organisms obtain food from the body of another living (host)

 Endoparasite : Parasite lives inside the body of the host e.g. tapeworm, roundworm.

Exoparasite:  Parasite lives on the body of the host. E.g. lice, leech.

Note - The parasite benefits while the host is usually harmed e.g. Cuscutta-plant parasite (amar bel), plasmodium (malarial parasite).

(c) Holozoic nutrition: Organism (mostly animals) take in whole food and then digest it into smaller particles with enzyme. Eg. Amoeba, Paramoecium. Animals, human beings.

 Steps in Holozoic nutrition

(i)                 Ingestion: taking in of food.

(ii)               Digestion: breaking down of complex food into simpler, absorbable form.

Salivary glands
Salivary Amylase
Converts starch into sugar
Gastric glands
Gastric juice-

(i) Hydrochloric
     acid                →

(ii)  Pepsin         →

(iii) Mucus        →
(a) Kills harmful bacteria that
     enters with the food.
(b)   Makes the medium alkaline
      for the action of Pepsin 

Digests proteins

Protects the inner lining of the stomach from the corrosive action of Hydrochloric acid.         
Small intestine
1) Liver

2)   Pancreas  
(i) Bile juice      →

(ii)  Pancreatic

Amylase →

Trypsin   →

Lipase     →

(a) Makes the medium acidic
      for the action of Pancreatic
(b) Breaks down large fat molecules into smaller globules so that enzymes can act upon  them.

Converts Carbohydrates to glucose

Converts Proteins to Amino acids

Converts Fats into Fatty acids & 

Peristaltic movements- Rhythmic contraction of muscles of the lining of Alimentary canal to push the food forward.
(iii)             Assimilation: Utilization of digested food from the body.

(iv)             Egestion: Removing undigested food from the body   

Nutrition in human beings

Alimentary canal-  Mouth → Oesophagus → Stomach → Small intestine  → Large intestine

 Important gland/juices      (Refer to figure 6.6 page no.97 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book)

Sphincter muscle- 

(i) Gastric Sphincter muscle - Helps in the exit of food from the stomach to small intestine. 

(i) Anal Sphincter muscle - Helps in the exit of undigested waste from rectum trough anus

Villi- Small finger like projections on the walls of  : 

Small intestine- To increase the surface area for the absorption of food.

Large intestine- For absorption of water.

Some common features of Respiratory organs-
 (i) Large surface area- for greater rate of diffusion of respiratory gases. 

(ii) Thin permeable walls – to ensure easy diffusion & exchange of gases. 

(iii) Extensive blood supply- Respiratory organs are richly supplied with blood vessels for quick transport of gases.

Gaseous exchange in plants-  Process – Diffusion 

Direction of diffusion depends on- (i) Environmental conditions  (ii)  Requirement of the plant.

 Day time- Carbon dioxide given out during respiration is used for photosynthesis. Therefore only Oxygen is released, which is a major activity during the day.

Night time – Only respiration takes place. Therefore only Carbon dioxide is released, which is a major activity during the night.

Gaseous exchange in animals - 

Terrestrial animals- take Oxygen from the atmosphere.

Aquatic animals- take Oxygen dissolved in water. (Oxygen content is low in water, therefore they breathe faster.

Human Respiratory system-

External nostrils → Nasal cavity → Trachea→ Bronchi → Bronchioles → Alveoli

Rings of cartilage present in the throat ensure that the trachea (air passage) does not collapse when there is less air in it.

Lungs – (i) Present in the thoracic cavity.
             (ii) They are spongy, elastic bags consisting of Bronchi, Bronchioles and Alveoli
                   Refer to figure 6.9 page no. 104 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book)

Respiration occurs in two phases-

(i) External-Breathing, which is a mechanical process.   (ii) Internal - Cellular respiration

Mechanism of breathing – It includes : (i)Inhalation   (ii) Exhalation

Exchange of gases-
Unicellular organisms- By Diffusion

(i) As the body size is large, diffusion alone is not enough.
(ii) Respiratory pigments also required.
(iii) Respiratory pigment in human beings is Haemoglobin, which is present in red blood corpuscles.
(iv) It has very high affinity for Oxygen.
(iv) Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than Oxygen, so it  gets dissolves in blood and is thus transported.

Transportation : Transportation in human beings-
Blood - (i) It is a fluid connective tissue.     

(ii) Components - (a) Fluid medium- Plasma    (b) Red blood corpuscles         (c) White blood corpuscles         (d) Platelets suspended in plasma

Note: RBC – Erythrocytes- It is disc shape and having colour pigment Haemoglobin which provide red colour. It transport oxygen to all part of body

WBC – leukocytes – It produces antibodies that protect us from disease causing micro organism.

Platelets: Thrombocytes - It help in clothing of blood

(iii) Plasma transports food, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Nitrogenous wastes, etc.

Functions of blood - (i) Transport of respiratory gases.  (ii) Transport of nutrients.  (iii) Transport of waste products.  (iv) Defence against infection

Blood vessels- (i) Arteries (ii) Veins (iii) Capillaries

1. Thick walled.

2. Deep seated.

3. Carry blood away from the heart.

4. Carry Oxygenated blood.

5. Valves absent.
1. Thin walled.

2. Superficial.

3. Carry blood to the heart.

4. Carry Deoxygenated blood.

5. Valves present

Heart- (Refer to figure 6.10 page no. 106 of N.C.E.R.T Text book)

Working of heart-

Left side- (i)  Left atrium relaxes & the Oxygenated blood enters it from the lungs through the pulmonary vein.
(ii)  Left atrium contracts & the blood enters the left ventricle through the valve.

(iii) Left Ventricle contracts and the blood is pumped into the largest artery ‘Aorta’ and is carried to all parts of the body.

Right side- (i) Right atrium relaxes & the deoxygenated blood from the body enters it  through superior and inferior Vena cava.

 (ii)  Right atrium contracts & the blood enters the right Ventricle through the valve.

 (iii) Right Ventricle contracts and the blood is pumped into the Pulmonary artery and is carried to lungs.

Valves - it ensure unidirectional flow of blood and prevent the backward flow of blood.

Pulmonary vein is the only vein that carries Oxygenated blood from lungs to heart.

Aorta is the only artery that carries Deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs.

Double circulation in man- because the blood passes through the heart twice in one complete cycle of the circulation.

Capillaries- (i) Form the connection between arteries & veins.

(ii) Walls are one cell thick only for easy exchange of blood.

Platelets- Plug the leaks of arteries and veins by clotting the blood.

Lymph- Extracellular fluid similar to plasma but colourless with lesser protein.

Function of lymph- (i) Transportation of digested & absorbed fats from the small intestine.

(ii) Drains excess fluid from the intercellular spaces back in the blood.

Higher animals- E.g., birds, mammals.

(i) Oxygenated blood & Deoxygenated blood are completely separate for efficient Oxygen supply.

(ii) This is to fulfil higher energy needs and to maintain body temperature (warm blooded animals).

Amphibians & reptiles- have 3 chambered heat where little mixing of Oxygenated blood & Deoxygenated blood takes place. Therefore their body temperature varies with the temperature of the environment. (cold blooded animals)

Transportation in plants-

Plants need less energy needs- because they do not move and therefore have a slow transport system

Transport of water-

(i) Takes place by xylem tissue present in roots, stem, leaves and is therefore interconnected.

(ii) Root cells take up ions from the soil, which creates a concentration difference between root and soil. Column of water therefore rises upwards.

In very tall plants- transpiration creates a suction pressure, which pulls the water upwards.

Importance of transpiration-

(i) Helps in upward movement of water in plants.

(ii) It regulates the temperature in plants.

Transport of food-

(i) Takes place by phloem tissue.

(ii) Movement of prepared food in plants is called translocation.


The biological process of removal of harmful metabolic wastes in living organisms.

Excretion in human beings- (Refer to figure 6.13 page no. 110 of N.C.E.R.T Text book)

Organs of excretory system- (i) Kidneys (iii) Urinary bladder (ii) Ureters (iv) Urethra

Kidneys  - (i) Two in number    (ii) Bean shaped   (iii) Present in abdomen on either side of the backbone    (iv) Basic unit is nephron.

a. Glomerulus- Group of capillaries (cluster) present in Bowman’s capsule to receive blood from renal artery and filters it.

b. Bowman’s capsule- Cup shaped structure, which contains glomerulus.

c. Proximal  and Convoluted tubules and Loop of Henle  - tubules reabsorbs vital nutrients like glucose, amino acids, salts, urea and water.

Note-Vital functions of kidneys-  (a) Filtration & removal of Nitrogenous wastes (b)  Reabsorption of vital nutrients

 Ureters  - Transport the urine formed in the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

Urinary bladder- Muscular bag like structure to store urine.

Urethra- Helps in removal of urine when the Urinary bladder is full.

Artificial kidney- Principle: Dialysis

Dialysis is the artificial process of getting rid of waste and unwanted water from the blood by dialysis machines.

Dialysis machines contain a tank with solution of water glucose and salt. Patient’s blood allowed passing through solution for removal of waste. the cleaned blood pumped to vein. The dialysis continues till all blood has been purified.

 Excretion in plants -  

Gaseous wastes- CO2 in respiration & O2 in photosynthesis are removed by the process of diffusion

Excess water- is removed by transpiration

Other wastes  - (i) Stored in cellular vacuoles or in leaves, which fall off or as gums, resins, etc. in old xylem. (ii)  Excreted in soil.

  Important activities  video tutorial -

1. To prove that chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis.
2. To prove that Carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis.
3. To prove that light is necessary for photosynthesis.
4. To prove that product of fermentation is Carbon dioxide.
5. To prove that leaves lose water by transpiration.
6. To study the action of salivary amylase on starch.
7. To demonstrate that Carbon dioxide is present in exhaled air
8. To demonstrate the process of transpiration in plants.
9. Cardiac Cycle - Systole & Diastole

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CBSE Biology class 10 Key notes prepared by KVS and Delhi Schools for SA-01