Wednesday, June 25, 2014

Control and Coordination Study Material for class 10

10th Control and coordination
The organ system in an animal that serves to coordinate and control the functioning  of all other organ systems in the body is known as nervous system.

Nervous system works with the endocrine system to communicate, integrate and coordinate the functions of various organs and systems in our body and helps the body to respond to the external stimuli.

 In humans, the nervous system has two main divisions:
• The central nervous system (CNS)
• The peripheral nervous system (PNS)

The central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord. It is regarded as the ‘thinker’ or ‘information processor’ in the body.

The peripheral nervous system includes the sensory and motor nerves and connects the central nervous system with the sense organs, muscles and glands of the body. The peripheral nervous system is regarded as ‘actor’ or ‘performer’ in the body.

Nerve cell or neuron

A neuron is the basic unit of nervous tissue. Our nervous system contains about 10 billion nerve cells, which communicate with each other in a specific manner.

Structure of the neuron

Each neuron has a central area called the cell body or cyton.

The cell body has a large central nucleus and cytoplasm. Several short, thread like branches called dendrites arise from the cell body. One branch arising out of the cell body is very long in comparison to others. This branch is called axon or nerve fibre.

Axon may or may not be covered by a fatty sheath called myelin sheath. This covering is missing at intervals. These gaps on the sheath are known as nodes of Ranvier.

Types of neurons
i. Sensory neurons, which transmit impulse from receptor (sense organ) to coordinator (brain or spinal cord).
ii. Motor neurons, which transmit impulse from modulator to effectors (muscle or glands).
iii. Connecting neurons, which connect sensory and motor neurons, found in the grey matter.


Nerves are thread like structures, which emerge from brain and spinal cord and branch out to almost all parts of the body. The nerves are composed of axons or nerve fibres bundled together like the strands of an electric cable 

Kinds of nerves

There are three kinds of nerves. These are:

i. Sensory nerves: These nerves contain sensory fibres. Sensory nerves bring impulse from sense organs to the brain or the spinal cord.
ii. Motor nerves: These nerves contain motor fibres. Motor nerves carry impulse from brain or spinal cord to the effector organ like muscle or glands.
iii. Mixed nerves: These nerves contain both sensory and motor nerve fibres and perform a mixed function.

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