Friday, October 28, 2011

X chemistry Carbon and its Compounds Sample guess ...

X chemistry Carbon and its Compounds Sample guess ...
Chapter – 4 Carbon and its Compounds - Points to remember and Important questions paper
1. Carbon forms a large variety of compouds because of its tetravalency and the property
of catenation.
2. Hydrocarbons are the compounds of carbon and hydrogen.
3. Hydrocarbons are of two types – saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) and unsaturated
hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes)
4. Carbon forms covalent bonds with itself and other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen,
sulphur, nitrogen and chlorine.
5. The functional groups such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids bestow
characteristic properties to the carbon compounds that contain them.
6. A group / series of hydrocarbons having similar structure and similar properties (i.e.
same functional group) is called a homologous series.
7. Carbon chains may be in the form of straight chains, branched chains or rings.
8. Carbon compounds with identical molecular formula but different structures are called
structural isomers.
9. Saturated hydrocarbons on combustion give carbondioxide and water with lots of heat.
10. Unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions while saturated hydrocarbons
undergo substitution reactions.
11. Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (glacial acetic acid) are carbon compounds of importance in
our daily lives.
12. The molecules of soap are sodium or potassium salts of long chain carboxylic acids.
13. Detergents are ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids.
14. The action of soaps and detergents is based on the presence of both hydrophobic and
hydrophilic groups in the molecule and this helps to emulsify the oily dirt and hence its
removal.
QUESTIONS
1 mark questions:-
1. Name the type of bond formed when sharing of electrons occurs.
2. How many valence electrons are there in valence shell of carbon atom?
3. Define catenation.

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