The weather depends on the temperature, precipitation, humidity and atmospheric pressure of the part of atmosphere (air) closest to the surface of the earth. The weather is constantly changing as temperature and humidity change in the atmosphere.
Climate is the average weather conditions - temperature, pressure, precipitation and humidity - expected for a certain place. Climate is based on the average weather experienced over 30 years or more.
Meteorology: The science of monitoring and studying the atmosphere and predicting its weather and climate is called meteorology.
Meteorologists: People who study the weather and climate are known as meteorologists.
There are basically 6 factors affecting India's climate.
1) LATITUDE - Due to the curvature of the Earth, the amount of solar energy received is different according to the latitudes.
2) ALTITUDE - As we go higher, temperature generally decreases (From equator to poles) as the atmosphere becomes less dense.
3) PRESSURE AND WIND SYSTEM - They depend on the latitude and altitude of a place, thus influencing the rainfall patterns.
4) DISTANCE FROM SEA - The sea has a moderating effect on the climate. As distance from sea increases, this effect decreases and places experience extreme weather conditions (continentality).
5) OCEAN CURRENTS - They affect the climate of the coastal areas with the onshore winds.
6) RELIEF - High mountains act as barriers for cold/hot winds, may also cause precipitation if they are high enough and lie in the path of rain bearing winds. The leeward side of the mountains remains dry.
(Q.) Is wind a factor affecting climate?
Yes, because of its direction maybe it comes from America which is a cold place right NOW example going to Philippines which has a hot temperature therefore if the temperature of the wind is cold/hot coming from that particular place the place it should go to could have the opposite temperature of the place that the wind is coming from.
(Q.) How does an elephant living in tropical rain forest adapt itself?
(Ans) It has adapted to the conditions of rainforests in many remarkable ways.
It uses its trunk as a nose because of which it has a strong sense of smell. The trunk is also used by it for picking up food.
Moreover, its tusks are modified teeth. These can tear the bark of trees that elephant loves to eat. So, the elephant is able to handle the competition for food rather well.
Large ears of the elephant help it to hear even very soft sounds. They also help the elephant to keep cool in the hot and humid climate of the rainforest.
(Q.) Write a short note on the characteristics of Beard ape?
(Ans) The lion-tailed macaque (also called Beard ape) lives in the rainforests of Western Ghats. Its most outstanding feature is the silver-white mane, which surrounds the head from the cheeks down to its chin. It is a good climber and spends a major part of its life on the tree. It feeds mainly on fruits. It also eats seeds, young leaves, stems, flowers and buds. This beard ape also searches for insects under the bark of the trees. Since it is able to get sufficient food on the trees, it rarely comes down on the ground.
(Q.) (i) What is camouflage?
(Ans) Camouflage is the built-in protection in the animals which increase their chances of survival by tricking predators.
(Q.) Describe the adaptations of the polar bear in the polar climatic condition.
(Ans) - Polar bears have white fur so that they are not easily visible in the snowy white background which help it toprotect them from their predators. It also helps them in catching their prey.
- They have two thick layers of fur to protect them from extreme cold.
- They also have layer of fat under their skin.
- The polar bear goes for swimming for physical activities on warm days necessary for cooling.
-Its paws are wide and large, which help it not only to swim well but also to walk with ease in the snow.
- Polar bears can remain under water for long durations.
- It has a strong sense of smell so that it can catch its prey for food.
(Q.)Write the important characteristics of tropical rain forest?
(Ans) Tropical rainforests lie between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, or 1,400 miles north and south of the Equator. This region receives rainfall distributed regularly throughout the year, about 6-33 feet a year. It remains frost free and warm all year long, with temperatures between 70° and 85°F with very little daily fluctuation. Tropical rainforests are found in Western Ghats and Assam in India, Southeast Asia, Central America and Central Africa. Because of continuous warmth and rain, this region supports wide variety of plants and animals.
(Q) Which type of animals are inhabitants of tropical rain forestarea?
(Q.) Rainforests offers hospitable climatic conditions to support huge population of animals. Explain how?
(Ans) (a) The climatic conditions in rainforests are highly suitable for supporting an enormous number and variety of animals. Tropical rainforests lie near to the Equator. This region receives rainfall distributed regularly throughout the year, about 6-33 feet a year. It remains frost free and warm all year long, with temperatures between 70° and 85°F with very little daily fluctuation. Because of continuous warmth and rain, this region supports wide variety of plants and animals. The major types of animals living in the rainforests are monkeys, apes, gorillas, lions, tigers, elephants, leopards, lizards, snakes, birds and insects. Tropical rainforests are found in Western Ghats and Assam in India, Southeast Asia, Central America and Central Africa.
(Q) Explain with examples how animals have adapted themselves to overcome the competition for food and shelter in the rainforests.
(Q.) What do you mean by the term ‘Migration’? Give an example of a living organism which show this phenomenon.
(Ans) The regular seasonal journey undertaken by many species of animals and birds to escape the harsh and cold conditions of weather is known as migration. Many animals, birds and fishes migrate to warmer regions in winter and come back when winter is over. Migration is marked by its annual seasonality. For example, the Siberian crane that comes from Siberia migrates to India at places like Bharatpur in Rajasthan and Sultanpur in Haryana
(Q.) "All the changes in the weather are caused by sun." Do you agree with this statement? If yes, then explain.
(Ans) Yes, the sun is the primary source of energy that causes changes in the weather becausesun is a huge sphere of hot gases at a very high temperature. The distance of the sun from us is very large. Even then, the energy sent out by the sun is so huge that it is the source of all heat and light on the earth.Energy absorbed and reflected by the earth’s surface, oceans and the atmosphere play important roles in determining the weather at any place. Weather varies from place to place. It is different in a desert, near coastal areas or near a mountain.
(Q.) What are adaptations? Explain the types of adaptations.
(Ans) An adaptation is trait of an organism that has been favored by natural selection.
Structural adaptations are special body parts of an organism that help it to survive in its natural habitat (e.g., skin colour, shape, body covering).
Behavioral adaptations are special ways of a particular organism that behaves to survive in its natural habitat.
Physiological adaptations are systems present in an organism that allow it to perform certain biochemical reactions (e.g., making venom, being able to keep a constant body temperature).