Sunday, November 30, 2014

Diversity in Living Organisms Solved Questions class 9

Plants Kingdom          

Question: 1. Why do we classify organisms?  

Answer:- we classify organisms to understand characteristics of life form on the earth.

Question: 2. Give three examples of the range of variations that you see in life forms around you.
·     
Answer:- Three examples of the range of variations in life forms:
·         Bacteria is microscopic where as Red wood tree is giant
·         pine trees live for years where as mosquito for few days
·         Variety of flower having different colors

Question: 3. which do you think is a more basic characteristic for classifying organisms?
(a) The place where they live.   (b) The kind of cells they are made of. Why?

Answer: The kind of cells an organism is made of is more basic characteristic of classifying organism because form and function depends on cell

Question :- 4. What is the primary characteristic on which the first division of organisms is made?

Answer: Habitat.

Question: 5. (a) On what bases are plants and animals put into different categories?            
(b) What is the basis on which living things are identified and categorized?

Answer: (a) Body design and mode and source of nutrition  (b) On the basis of structure, mode and source of nutrition and body organization

Question: 6. which organisms are called primitive and how are they different from the so-called advanced organisms?

Answer: Groups of organisms which have ancient body designs and do not have not changed very much yet is called primitive. On the other hand, an organism acquired their particular body designs recently is called advanced.

Question: 7. (a) Will advanced organisms be the same as complex organisms? Why?
(b) How can we say that the classification of life forms will be closely related to their evolution ?      
Answer: 
(a) No, this is because there is a possibility that complexity in design will increase over evolutionary time
(b) As the characteristics that have come into existence earlier are likely to be more basic than characteristics that have come into existent latter.

Question: 8.What is the criterion for classification of organisms as belonging to kingdom Monera or Protista?

Answer: Organisms which are prokaryotes belong to the kingdom Monera and organism which are eukaryotes and unicellular belong to the kingdom Protista.

Question: 9. In which kingdom will you place an organism which is single-celled, eukaryotic and photosynthetic?

Answer: Protista

Question: 10. In the hierarchy of classification, which grouping will have the smallest number of organisms with a maximum of characteristics in common and which will have the largest number of organisms?

Answer: Kingdom will have the most number of organisms
Species will have the least number of organisms.

Question: 11. Which division among plants has the simplest organisms?

Answer: Thallophytic

Question: 12. How are pteridophytes different from the phanerogams?         
  
Answer: In pteridophytes, the reproductive organs are hidden and they do not produce seeds. In phaenrogams, reproductive organs are conspicuous[clearly visible.] and they produce seeds.

Question: 13. (a)How do gymnosperms and angiosperms differ from each other
(b) What are the differences between monocots and dicots?    

Answer: (a) Gymnosperms bear naked seeds and do not bear flowers eg. pines and deodar. Angiosperm have covered seeds and bear flower eg. pines and deodar

(b) Monocots produce one leaf[cotyledons] from the seed after germinating eg.Paphiopedilum
Dicots produce two. Monocots produce parallel leaf veins; Decocts produce a net-like display of veins. e.g. Ipomoea

Question: 15. What is evolution ? Who first of all gave the idea of evolution ?

Answer: All life forms that we see today have arisen by an accumulation of changes in body design that allow the organism possessing them to survive better is called evolution Charles Darwin first described this idea of evolution in 1859 in his book, The Origin of Species

Question: 16. State the name of scientist who proposed five kingdom classification systems of organisms.

Ans: Robert Whittaker in 1969 on the basis of (i) cell structure (ii) mode and source of nutrition and
(iii) body organization.

Kingdom
Types of Organisms
Monera
Bacteria and Cyanobacteria.
Protista
Unicellular organisms.
Plantae
All photosynthetic green plants.
Fungi
Lack chlorophyll and obtain their food through absorption.
Plantae
All multicellular photosynthetic green plants.
Animalia
Multicellular hetrotrophs

Question.17. Who proposed division of Monera kingdom? State the groups proposed

Answer: Carl Woese.  The groups are – (i) Archaebacteria or Archaea  (ii) Eubacteria or Bacteria.

Question:  18. (a) Define species.
                     (b) State the hierarchic categories generally used for classification of animals.

Answer: (a) All organism that are similar enough to inter breed  is called species.
               (b) The characteristics dependent on the previous one and would decide the variety in the next level should be chosen for developing a hierarchy in classification.

The hierarchic categories generally used for classification of animals

(i) Kingdom – Plant kingdom and animal kingdom.
(ii) Phylum (for animals)/Division (for plants) – Group of closely related classes having certain common characters.
(iii) Class – Group of closely related orders having certain common characters.
(iv) Order – Group of closely related families with certain common characters.
(v) Family – Group of closely related genus with certain common characters.
(vi) Genus – Group of closely related species with certain common characters.
(vii) Species – Group of organisms similar enough to breed and perpetuate.

Question:  19. Why blue green algae are included under monera and not under plantae ?

Ans: (i) Nuclear material is not enclosed with nuclear membrane and cell organelles are also not enclosed with membrane. (ii) Do not show multicellular body design.

Question:  20. State the groups of organism under kingdom monera.

Ans: (i) Bacteria               (ii) Cyanobacteria                 (iii) Mycoplasm.

Question:  21. What are mycoplasm ?

Answer: Mycoplasms are the smallest and the simplest organisms. They have nucleoid and their body can change shape easily. They are heterotrophs.

Question:  22.Why do bryophytes are called amphibians of the plant kingdom ?

Answer: Bryophytes are also called amphibians of the plant kingdom because they can live on soil but need water for sexual reproduction. They are usually found in damp, humid and shaded localities.

Question:  23. what are the contribution of Ernst Haeckel in biology?

Ans: Haeckel provide a reasonable pictures of how multicellular organisms evolved.

Question:  24.  What are the important characteristics of the five kingdoms of Whittaker ?
The Five Kingdoms
MONERANS
One Cell
No Nucleus
No Organelles
Some Cell Wall
Food
Make Food
Absorb Food
   Ingest Food

Movement
Water
Host
Reproduction
Fission

Examples

Bacteria
  
PROTISTS
Most One Cell
Some Many Cell
Nucleus
Organelles
Some Cell Wall
Food
Make Food
Absorb Food
Ingest Food
Movement
Pseudopodium
Cilia
Flagella
Reproduction
Fission
Asexual
Sexual
Examples
Plankton
Algae
Amoeba
Paramecium
Diatoms
Euglena
Volvox

FUNGI
Some One Cell
  Some Many Cell
Nucleus
Organelles
Cell Wall
Food
Absorb Food
Ingest Food
Movement
Host
Reproduction
Spores
Budding
Examples
Mushrooms
Molds
Mildews
Yeasts
          PLANTS
All Many Cells
Nucleus
Organelles
Cell Wall
Food
All Make Food
  Some Ingest Food
Movement
Grow
Phototropism
Geotropism
Reproduction
Sexual
Asexual
Grafting
Budding
Cuttings
Examples
Mosses
Ferns
Liverworts
Horsetails 

ANIMALS
All Many Cells
Nucleus
Organelles
Food
All Ingests Food
Movement
Muscles
Reproduction
Asexual
Sexual
Examples
Sponges
Worms
Mollusks
Insects
Starfish
Mammals
Amphibians
Fish
Birds
Reptiles



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