Wednesday, November 20, 2013

CBSE_NCERT Class Xth Topic _Properties of Alkanes/ Alkenes/ Alkynes

Properties of Alkanes/ Alkenes/ Alkynes  (10th Carbon and its compounds) Properties of Alkanes/ Alkenes/ Alkynes

(a) Alkanes are gas (C1to C4) ; liquid (C5to C17) and rest are solid at room temperature.

(b) The melting and boiling point of Alkanes increases with increase in number of C – atom in Alkanes.
Alkane
Formula
Boiling point [°C]
Melting point [°C]
State (at 20 °C)
Methane
CH4
-162
-182
gas
Ethane
C2H6
-89
-183
gas
Propane
C3H8
-42
-188
gas
Butane
C4H10
0
-138
gas
Pentane
C5H12
36
-130
liquid
Hexane
C6H14
69
-95
liquid
Heptane
C7H16
98
-91
liquid
Octane
C8H18
126
-57
liquid
Nonane
C9H20
151
-54
liquid
Decane
C10H22
174
-30
liquid
Undecane
C11H24
196
-26
liquid
Dodecane
C12H26
216
-10
liquid
Hexadecane
C16H34
281
18
liquid
Icosane
C20H42
343
37
solid
Triacontane
C30H62
450
66
solid
Tetracontane
C40H82
525
82
solid
Pentacontane
C50H102
575
91
solid
Hexacontane
C60H122
625
100
solid
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkane

Reason: Alkanes experience inter-molecular van der Waals forces. Stronger inter-molecular van der Waals forces give rise to greater boiling points of alkanes.

A straight-chain alkane will have a boiling point higher than a branched-chain alkane due to the greater surface area in contact. 

Note:  In Chemistry the Van der Waals forces include attractions and repulsions between atoms, molecules, and surfaces, as well as other intermolecular forces.

 (c) The density of the alkanes usually increases with increasing number of carbon atoms

Alkane
Formula
Density
Pentane
C5H12
0.626 (liquid)
Hexane
C6H14
0.659 (liquid)
Heptane
C7H16
0.684 (liquid)
Octane
C8H18
0.703 (liquid)
Nonane
C9H20
0.718 (liquid)

(d) Solubility:  Alkanes are generally insoluble in polar compound like water but dissolve in organic solvents (Non polar compound) like benzene. The liquid alkanes are good solvents for many other covalent compounds.

Reason: Alkanes do not conduct electricity, nor are they polarized by electricity. For this reason they do not form hydrogen bonds and are insoluble in polar solvents such as water.

(e) Reactivity: Alkanes are stable and less reactive than alkenes

Reason: This is because saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bonds which are very stable and difficult to break. On the other hand, unsaturated hydrocarbons contain pie bonds, which can be easily broken as they are more strained.

(f) Combustion: Alkanes are generally good combustible material due presence of the good percentage of Hydrogen.

Since Alkanes burn with non smoky and non sooty flame due to presence of the good percentage of Hydrogen, It is used as a fuel like LPG and CNG

2CH4
+
2O2
---------®
CO2
+
H2O
+
Heat and light
2C2H6
+
7O2
---------®
4CO2
+
6H2O
+
Heat and light
C2H4
+
3O2
---------®
2CO2
+
2H2O
+
Heat and light
2C2H2
+
5O2
---------®
4CO2
+
2H2O
+
Heat and light
2CH3 CH2OH
+
3O2
----------®
2CO2
+
3H2O
+
Heat and light

However, if the supply of air or oxygen is not sufficient for complete combustion, carbon monoxide is formed. Carbon monoxide (CO) is highly poisonous.

2CH4
+
3O2
-----------®
2CO
+
4H2O
2CH4
+
3O2
-----------®
2CO
+
4H2O
2C4H10           
+
9O2
-----------®
8CO
+
10H2O

Q. What is the difference between Oxidation and combustion?
Answer: Combustion is the complete oxidation of organic compound into carbon dioxide and water molecules in presence of oxygen gas while oxidation is the addition of oxygen in a organic compound or with an element the loss of electron from an atom or ion is also oxidation.
Hence, all Oxidation reactions are not combustion reaction but all combustion reactions are Oxidation. Oxidation reaction does not involve heat where as combustion reactions do.
 (g) Substitution reaction:  Alkanes do not undergo addition reaction due to strong van der wall force but take part in substitution reaction:
Alkanes undergo substitution reaction because hydrogen attached to carbon easily replaced by atom more reactive than hydrogen like halo atom Cl , Br ,I etc.



Sunlight



CH4   
 +
Cl2
---------®
CH3Cl
+
HCl 










Sunlight



 CH4Cl   
 +
Cl2
----------®
CH2Cl2
+
HCl 










Sunlight



CH2Cl2
 +
Cl2
----------®
CHCl3
+
HCl 










Sunlight



CHCl3
 +
Cl2
-----------®
CH3Cl
+
HCl 

If chlorine present in excess, then reaction does not stop in between but keep on reacting till it form carbon tetra chloride.

(h) Addition reaction:

Unlike alkane, generally alkene Undergo addition reaction with hydrogen gas in the presence of Palladium or nickel at (473 k) catalyst and gives saturated hydrocarbon.

Example: Ethene Undergo addition reaction with hydrogen gas in the presence of Palladium or nickel at (473 k) catalyst and gives saturated hydrocarbon Ethane




      Ni

CH2     =    CH2
+
H2
-----------®
CH3    -   CH3



   473 k


Ethyne Undergo addition reaction with hydrogen gas in the presence of Palladium or nickel at (473 k) catalyst and gives saturated hydrocarbon Ethane . This reaction is known as Hydrogenation Reaction.



      Pd

CH2     º    CH2
+
2H2
-----------®
CH3    -   CH3

This addition reaction of hydrogen is helpful in converting vegetable Oil into saturated fat like vanaspati gee. This reaction is commonly called Hydrogenation of Oil. This test helps to distinguish between saturated and saturated fats.
Note: Butter contain saturated compound where as cooking oil contain unsaturated compound. If Alkaline KMno4 added to both, pink color of KMno4 disappear in cooking oil but remain in pink in butter.



Ni

Vegetable Oil
+
H2
     -----------®
CH3    -   CH3  

Bromine and chlorine react with alkene to form vicinal dihalides (iodine does not undergo addition reaction under normal conditions).




      CCl4




CH2 = CH2
+   
Cl2
---------®
CH2
-
CH2





 I

 I





Cl

Cl

Ethene



 1,2- Dichloroethane




    CCl4





CH2 = CH2
Br2
---------®
CH3
-
CH
-
CH2






  I

 I






Br

Br
Ethene

Bromine water

       1,2-Dibromoethane

Bromine water test: Solution of Bromine in water is reddish brown in colour but 1, 2-Dibromoethane formed from the addition reaction is colourless. This helps us to identify unsaturated carbon compound. If an organic compound is unsaturated Solution of Bromine in water became colourless.

 Note: In Alkanes, the four valencies of carbon atom are saturated and they have stable s (sigma) bonds. Any nuleophile comes; one hydrogen atom is replaced to accommodate the nucleophile.

CH4 + Cl2  ® CH3Cl + HCl

In case of Alkene or Alkyne, Carbon atom has double or triple bonds. In this, one is stable s (sigma) bond and the rests are unstable (or weak) p  bonds. When nucleophile approaches to the carbon atom that has double or triple bonds, they easily break to accommodate it.

e.g., H2C=CH2 + Cl2 ® H2ClC-CH2Cl.

 (i)  Cracking (or pyrolysis):  Higher alkanes undergo thermal decomposition to give lower alkanes. This process is called pyrolysis or cracking. In this process, vapour of higher alkanes is passed through a hot metal tube (5000C – 7000C). Propane on cracking gives,


     
D

C3H6 + H2
C3H8
-----------®



CH4 + C2H4
Cracking of hexane gives butane and ethane.



D

C6H14
-------------®
C4H10 + C2H4

Q. What's the difference between cracking and Pyrolysis?

Pyrolysis: The decomposition of a compound on heating in absence of air is known as pyrolysis.

Cracking: is the breakdown of large organic compounds by use of a catalyst and low temperature to form fewer different compounds

Q.  In cracking will the decomposed hydrocarbon always be a saturated and a unsaturated hydrocarbons? Can they both be either unsaturated or saturated hydrocarbons?

Cracking is defined as the process of breaking or decomposition of large hydrocarbons into smaller compounds. This process is widely used in the petroleum industry. Usually, we get a mixture of alkane and alkenes by the process of cracking of hydrocarbons. This is because the bonds in the hydrocarbons can be cleared in any way. As a result, we will not get alkane and alkene exclusively but a mixture of both.

(j) Oxidation: The chemical reaction in which oxygen added to substance is called oxidation of substance. The substance which donate oxygen to other substance during chemical reaction is called oxidizing agent like K2Cr2O7, HNO3 and KMnO4 .  Alkane on oxidation produces heat and light known as combustion.

(a) Ethene on treating with alkaline KMnO4 oxidized to Ethylene Glycol

  
H

H

H
H


I

 I
Alk. KMnO4

 I
I

H -
C
=
C
-
H
+ H2O
+ O
----------®
H  – 
C – 
C  -
H










 I
  I











OH
OH

Ethene





Ethylene Glycol

(b) Ethyne on treating with alkaline KMnO4 oxidized to Oxalic Acid


Alk. KMnO4
COOH
H – C º C – H 
+ 4O               
---------®
I


COOH
Ethyne

Oxalic Acid

 (c) Ethanol on treating with alkaline KMnO4  or acidified K2Cr2Ooxidized to Ethanoic Acid.
During oxidation of Ethanol alkaline KMnO4 losses its purple colour .

                                                
Alk. KMnO4 + Heat

CH3 CH2 OH  + 4O              
-------------------®
CH3COOH
Ethanol

Ethanoic Acid

Ethanol is highly inflammable and catches fire readily. This is why during oxidation it should never be heat directly on a burner. it should be heated on a water bath.

The ionization energy of an atom or molecule describes the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom or molecule in the gaseous state.
X + energy → X+ + e-     Know your chemistry knowledge

Next             Functional group of carbon compound for class 10th CBSE/NCERT 

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