Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Life process CBSE Biology class 10 Key notes prepared by KVS and Delhi Schools for SA-01


Life processes – The processes that are necessary for an organism to stay alive. Eg. Nutrition, respiration, etc.


Criteria of life - (i) Growth  (ii) Movement

Nutrition - The process of taking  in food and its utilizes it to get energy, for growth, repair and maintenance, etc. and excretes the waste materials from the body is called Nutrition.

Types of nutrition   
                                                                        
1.      Autotrophic nutrition(Auto =self:  trophos = nourishment) E.g. Plants, Algae, blue green bacteria.

 Process – Photosynthesis (Photo=light; Synthesis= to combine)

Raw materials- (i) Carbon dioxide (ii)Water


Chlorophyll Formula :  C55H72O5N4Mg
Equation- 

  6CO2  +  6H2O             sunlight /    Chlorophyl  ----->      C6H12O6      +     6O2
   
Energy conversion- Light/Solar energy to Chemical energy

Role off Chlorophyll- To trap the sun’s energy for photosynthesis

Factors- (i) Carbon dioxide (ii) Water(iii) Light (iv) Temperature

Events/ Steps of photosynthesis-  

(i) Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll

(ii) Conversion of light energy to chemical energy & Splitting of water molecule into Hydrogen & oxygen

(iii) Reduction of Carbon dioxide to Carbohydrate

Gaseous exchange- (i) Gas used- Carbon dioxide (ii) By product - Oxygen

Source of raw materials-

(i)         Carbon dioxide –Land plants- Air, Aquatic plants- Water

(ii)      Water & Minerals - Soil

2.      Heterotrophic nutrition (Hetero =others:  trophos = nourishment) Eg. Animals, plants lacking chlorophyll like fungi.

(a)    Saprophytic nutrition: Organisms feeds on dead decaying plants or animals material. E.g. Fungi, Bacteria

(b) Parasitic nutrition: Organisms obtain food from the body of another living (host)


 Endoparasite : Parasite lives inside the body of the host e.g. tapeworm, roundworm.

Exoparasite:  Parasite lives on the body of the host. E.g. lice, leech.

Note - The parasite benefits while the host is usually harmed e.g. Cuscutta-plant parasite (amar bel), plasmodium (malarial parasite).

(c) Holozoic nutrition: Organism (mostly animals) take in whole food and then digest it into smaller particles with enzyme. Eg. Amoeba, Paramoecium. Animals, human beings.

 Steps in Holozoic nutrition

(i)                 Ingestion: taking in of food.

(ii)               Digestion: breaking down of complex food into simpler, absorbable form.


Organ
Gland
Enzyme/Juice
Function
Mouth
Salivary glands
Salivary Amylase
Converts starch into sugar
Stomach
Gastric glands
Gastric juice-

(i) Hydrochloric
     acid                →

(ii)  Pepsin         →

(iii) Mucus        →
(a) Kills harmful bacteria that
     enters with the food.
(b)   Makes the medium alkaline
      for the action of Pepsin 

Digests proteins

Protects the inner lining of the stomach from the corrosive action of Hydrochloric acid.         
Small intestine
1) Liver







2)   Pancreas  
(i) Bile juice      →







(ii)  Pancreatic
      Juice        

Amylase →


Trypsin   →

Lipase     →


(a) Makes the medium acidic
      for the action of Pancreatic
     enzymes.
(b) Breaks down large fat molecules into smaller globules so that enzymes can act upon  them.




Converts Carbohydrates to glucose

Converts Proteins to Amino acids

Converts Fats into Fatty acids & 

Glycerol
Peristaltic movements- Rhythmic contraction of muscles of the lining of Alimentary canal to push the food forward.
(iii)             Assimilation: Utilization of digested food from the body.

(iv)             Egestion: Removing undigested food from the body   

Nutrition in human beings

Alimentary canal-  Mouth → Oesophagus → Stomach → Small intestine  → Large intestine


 Important gland/juices      (Refer to figure 6.6 page no.97 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book)

Sphincter muscle- 

(i) Gastric Sphincter muscle - Helps in the exit of food from the stomach to small intestine. 

(i) Anal Sphincter muscle - Helps in the exit of undigested waste from rectum trough anus


Villi- Small finger like projections on the walls of  : 

Small intestine- To increase the surface area for the absorption of food.

Large intestine- For absorption of water.

Some common features of Respiratory organs-
 (i) Large surface area- for greater rate of diffusion of respiratory gases. 

(ii) Thin permeable walls – to ensure easy diffusion & exchange of gases. 

(iii) Extensive blood supply- Respiratory organs are richly supplied with blood vessels for quick transport of gases.

Gaseous exchange in plants-  Process – Diffusion 

Direction of diffusion depends on- (i) Environmental conditions  (ii)  Requirement of the plant.

 Day time- Carbon dioxide given out during respiration is used for photosynthesis. Therefore only Oxygen is released, which is a major activity during the day.

Night time – Only respiration takes place. Therefore only Carbon dioxide is released, which is a major activity during the night.

Gaseous exchange in animals - 

Terrestrial animals- take Oxygen from the atmosphere.

Aquatic animals- take Oxygen dissolved in water. (Oxygen content is low in water, therefore they breathe faster.

Human Respiratory system-

External nostrils → Nasal cavity → Trachea→ Bronchi → Bronchioles → Alveoli

Rings of cartilage present in the throat ensure that the trachea (air passage) does not collapse when there is less air in it.

Lungs – (i) Present in the thoracic cavity.
             (ii) They are spongy, elastic bags consisting of Bronchi, Bronchioles and Alveoli
                   Refer to figure 6.9 page no. 104 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book)

Respiration occurs in two phases-

(i) External-Breathing, which is a mechanical process.   (ii) Internal - Cellular respiration

Mechanism of breathing – It includes : (i)Inhalation   (ii) Exhalation

Exchange of gases-
Unicellular organisms- By Diffusion

Animals- 
(i) As the body size is large, diffusion alone is not enough.
(ii) Respiratory pigments also required.
(iii) Respiratory pigment in human beings is Haemoglobin, which is present in red blood corpuscles.
(iv) It has very high affinity for Oxygen.
(iv) Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than Oxygen, so it  gets dissolves in blood and is thus transported.

Transportation : Transportation in human beings-
Blood - (i) It is a fluid connective tissue.     

(ii) Components - (a) Fluid medium- Plasma    (b) Red blood corpuscles         (c) White blood corpuscles         (d) Platelets suspended in plasma

Note: RBC – Erythrocytes- It is disc shape and having colour pigment Haemoglobin which provide red colour. It transport oxygen to all part of body

WBC – leukocytes – It produces antibodies that protect us from disease causing micro organism.

Platelets: Thrombocytes - It help in clothing of blood

(iii) Plasma transports food, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Nitrogenous wastes, etc.

Functions of blood - (i) Transport of respiratory gases.  (ii) Transport of nutrients.  (iii) Transport of waste products.  (iv) Defence against infection

Blood vessels- (i) Arteries (ii) Veins (iii) Capillaries


                          Arteries
                        Veins
1. Thick walled.

2. Deep seated.

3. Carry blood away from the heart.

4. Carry Oxygenated blood.

5. Valves absent.
1. Thin walled.

2. Superficial.

3. Carry blood to the heart.

4. Carry Deoxygenated blood.

5. Valves present

Heart- (Refer to figure 6.10 page no. 106 of N.C.E.R.T Text book)


Working of heart-

Left side- (i)  Left atrium relaxes & the Oxygenated blood enters it from the lungs through the pulmonary vein.
(ii)  Left atrium contracts & the blood enters the left ventricle through the valve.

(iii) Left Ventricle contracts and the blood is pumped into the largest artery ‘Aorta’ and is carried to all parts of the body.

Right side- (i) Right atrium relaxes & the deoxygenated blood from the body enters it  through superior and inferior Vena cava.


 (ii)  Right atrium contracts & the blood enters the right Ventricle through the valve.

 (iii) Right Ventricle contracts and the blood is pumped into the Pulmonary artery and is carried to lungs.

Valves - it ensure unidirectional flow of blood and prevent the backward flow of blood.

Pulmonary vein is the only vein that carries Oxygenated blood from lungs to heart.

Aorta is the only artery that carries Deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs.

Double circulation in man- because the blood passes through the heart twice in one complete cycle of the circulation.


Capillaries- (i) Form the connection between arteries & veins.

(ii) Walls are one cell thick only for easy exchange of blood.

Platelets- Plug the leaks of arteries and veins by clotting the blood.


Lymph- Extracellular fluid similar to plasma but colourless with lesser protein.

Function of lymph- (i) Transportation of digested & absorbed fats from the small intestine.


(ii) Drains excess fluid from the intercellular spaces back in the blood.


Higher animals- E.g., birds, mammals.

(i) Oxygenated blood & Deoxygenated blood are completely separate for efficient Oxygen supply.

(ii) This is to fulfil higher energy needs and to maintain body temperature (warm blooded animals).

Amphibians & reptiles- have 3 chambered heat where little mixing of Oxygenated blood & Deoxygenated blood takes place. Therefore their body temperature varies with the temperature of the environment. (cold blooded animals)

Transportation in plants-

Plants need less energy needs- because they do not move and therefore have a slow transport system


Transport of water-

(i) Takes place by xylem tissue present in roots, stem, leaves and is therefore interconnected.

(ii) Root cells take up ions from the soil, which creates a concentration difference between root and soil. Column of water therefore rises upwards.

In very tall plants- transpiration creates a suction pressure, which pulls the water upwards.

Importance of transpiration-

(i) Helps in upward movement of water in plants.

(ii) It regulates the temperature in plants.

Transport of food-

(i) Takes place by phloem tissue.

(ii) Movement of prepared food in plants is called translocation.

Excretion-

The biological process of removal of harmful metabolic wastes in living organisms.

Excretion in human beings- (Refer to figure 6.13 page no. 110 of N.C.E.R.T Text book)

Organs of excretory system- (i) Kidneys (iii) Urinary bladder (ii) Ureters (iv) Urethra

Kidneys  - (i) Two in number    (ii) Bean shaped   (iii) Present in abdomen on either side of the backbone    (iv) Basic unit is nephron.

a. Glomerulus- Group of capillaries (cluster) present in Bowman’s capsule to receive blood from renal artery and filters it.

b. Bowman’s capsule- Cup shaped structure, which contains glomerulus.


c. Proximal  and Convoluted tubules and Loop of Henle  - tubules reabsorbs vital nutrients like glucose, amino acids, salts, urea and water.

Note-Vital functions of kidneys-  (a) Filtration & removal of Nitrogenous wastes (b)  Reabsorption of vital nutrients

 Ureters  - Transport the urine formed in the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

Urinary bladder- Muscular bag like structure to store urine.

Urethra- Helps in removal of urine when the Urinary bladder is full.

Artificial kidney- Principle: Dialysis

Dialysis is the artificial process of getting rid of waste and unwanted water from the blood by dialysis machines.

Dialysis machines contain a tank with solution of water glucose and salt. Patient’s blood allowed passing through solution for removal of waste. the cleaned blood pumped to vein. The dialysis continues till all blood has been purified.

 Excretion in plants -  

Gaseous wastes- CO2 in respiration & O2 in photosynthesis are removed by the process of diffusion

Excess water- is removed by transpiration

Other wastes  - (i) Stored in cellular vacuoles or in leaves, which fall off or as gums, resins, etc. in old xylem. (ii)  Excreted in soil.


  Important activities  video tutorial -


1. To prove that chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis.
2. To prove that Carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis.
3. To prove that light is necessary for photosynthesis.
4. To prove that product of fermentation is Carbon dioxide.
5. To prove that leaves lose water by transpiration.
6. To study the action of salivary amylase on starch.
7. To demonstrate that Carbon dioxide is present in exhaled air
8. To demonstrate the process of transpiration in plants.
9. Cardiac Cycle - Systole & Diastole

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CBSE Biology class 10 Key notes prepared by KVS and Delhi Schools for SA-01

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